مسجد تاریخی سنگ بست برگی نو از معماری غزنوی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 سازمان میراث فرهنگ خراسان رضوی کارشناس

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ابهر

3 عضو هیأت علمی پژوهشکده باستان شناسی

10.22084/nbsh.2019.17240.1807

چکیده

پژوهش باستان شناسی شهر تاریخی سنگ بست نشان داد دو شاخصه جغرافیا و ارتباطات در توسعه شهری و تمدنی همیشه تأثیر گذار بوده اند. هدف این پژوهش تدقیق عرصه و کسب اطلاعات لازم از بناهای مهم شهری بود که آثار آن مشهود است.
در سمت انتهای ایوان اصلی منبری مربوط به اواخر دوره تیموری با استفاده از آجر،گچ و ملات گل ساخته شده است. کف مسجد عموما آجر فرش است و روی آن اندود های چند لایه گچی وجود دارد که حاکی از مرمت و استفاده مکرر از آن در ادوار مختلف حکایت دارد.
شبستان دارای ستون هایی به ابعاد حدود 215*245سانتی متر بوده که از همدیگر3 مترفاصله داشته است. سنت دیوار نویسی و نوشتن کتیبه در بنا های تاریخی در طرفین منبر این مسجد دیده شد. در نهایت می توان چنین گفت که این که مسجد دارای حیاط مرکزی بزرگی به ابعاد 44*44متر و نیز تزئینات زیبای معماری ایرانی است؛ تا حدودی ویژگی های سبک رازی در آن دیده می شود. لذا مسجد علی رقم دارا بودن پلان سبک خراسانی در نیمه دوم قرن چهارم در حال گذر از سادگی سبک خراسانی به سبک رازی است. در سمت انتهای ایوان اصلی مقابل محراب منبر مسجد قرار دارد. منبر مکشوفه فعلی در اواخر دوره تیموری با استفاده از آجر،گچ و ملات گل ساخته شده است. کف مسجد عموما آجر فرش است و روی آن اندود های چند لایه گچی وجود دارد که حاکی از مرمت و استفاده مکرر از آن در ادوار مختلف حکایت دارد. شبستان دارای ستون هایی به ابعاد حدود 215*245سانتی متر بوده که از همدیگر3 مترفاصله داشته است. سنت دیوار نویسی و نوشتن کتیبه در بنا های تاریخی در طرفین منبر این مسجد دیده شد. بنابراین می توان گفت نیمه دوم قرن چهارم و اوایل قرن پنج هجری قمری در خراسان این تغییر در ارکان معماری مساجد شروع شد و به تدریج به سایر نواحی کشور توسعه یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

the historic mosque of sangbast unknown chain ghaznavi architecture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Abbaszade 1
  • haide khamse 2
  • mohammad mortezayi 3
1 Archalojist
2 islamic azad university of abhar
3 Research fellow.Iranian center for Archaeolo gical research
چکیده [English]

The archaeological research of the historic city of Sangbast showed that the two indicators of geography and communication in urban and civil development have always been influential. The results obtained in the discovery of valuable works and unique architectural decorations in the rocky mosque indicate the prosperity of the fourth and fifth AH. Certainly, excavation and archaeological research in the future will clarify the architectural values of this monument. The purpose of this study was to assess the field and obtain information from important city buildings whose effects are evident. Since the elements of the mosques, such as the porch, the dome, the central courtyard, the altar and the pulpit, were important in determining its identity, boreholes were drilled on the southern side of the qibla and the northern side on the entrance to the mosque. Due to the destruction that took place in the late centuries and after the mosque was abandoned, it was difficult to recognize that the mosque was built in the style of Khorasani style or the style of Razi.
The drilling results showed that the southern side of the mosque had a large porch with its sides 275 cm in diameter. The back of this thick, half-columned triplex with 370 cm spacing firmnessed and strengthened the porch.
The floor of the mosque is generally covered with carpet bricks, and the lacquered laminate plaster has been repaired and repeatedly used on it. On the northern side of the mosque there were no sign of the porch, and the north side and the eastern and western sides of the courtyard appear to be the mosque's nave The city has columns with dimensions of 215 * 245 cm, each with 3 meters distance from another. Moshad Sang bast with gypsum decoration with threads of flowers and shrubs and slaves, inscriptions of Kofi crafts inside the building, brick inscriptions The interior of the mosque was decorated with the Kofi lines in the exterior, turquoise blue, orange, white and yellow. It's beautiful. Some of the same decorations are decorations below the dome of the tomb of Arsalan Zazeb and Mashhad's Mashhad Arsalan Guide. Samples of gypsum decorations on the columns are obtained with vertical grooves that are similar to those seen in the mosque of Gonbad-e Balkh. Some of the mosque's decorations, like decorative grooves on the pillars and the exterior, are comparable to the decorations of the rectangular tower in Mazandaran. Similar decorations of the same grove can be found in Robat Sharafarakhs. The common features of the decoration of the mosque of Sangbat with the tower of the Chehel girls of Damghan (446 AH); the minaret of the Masjid Pamenar Zavareh (461 AH); the mosque of Berezian mosque (491 AH), especially the adornment of stucco and trim. Despite the special importance of this city, the direction of the East and West exchanges, as well as the training of the elders, the existence of a school was necessary. This seems to have been a dual function as a school mosque. The general conclusion is that the mosque of Sangbath Ali cultivar, which has a large central courtyard of 44 x 44 meters in size and beautifully decorated with Iranian architecture, is more similar to the Razi style, but most of the mosque's space on the northern side and the eastern and western sides of the courtyard resembles the mosque Khorasani style. Therefore, the mosque Ali Kavar has a Khorasani style plan in the second half of the 4th century passing from the simplicity of the style of the Khorasani style to the Razi's. Thus, it can be said that the second half of the 4th century and the early 5th century AH in Khorasan this change began at The mosque's architectural elements and gradually spread to other parts of the country.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • historical mosque Sangbast "
  • "Khorasani style "
  • " Razi style "
  • " 4th century