عنوان مقاله [English]
Most studies on numerous potteries found in archaeological excavations are aimed at understanding people s mentality and beliefs in that era, in case that these images are externally and naturally roots of our visual art.
Visual art has been the most important mankind’s earliest art and recognizing its formation history and changes is vital for all nations. The recent analytical-historical study will review visual structure of the illustrations in Iran plateau B. C with a formalist approach. The study is based on painted potteries and it is aimed at achieving visual characteristics. Studying vessel forms, elements and visual principle used in images clarifies the dominant visual features and provides context for categorizing samples based on the region’s visual priorities.
Fars’s Tall- e Bakun is chosen as this study’s case geography because of its geographical extent, plurality of findings and its rich images. Visual samples are gathered by studying excavation reports and observing museum objects. Tall- e Bakun is divided to two eras, Tall- e Bakun’ b‘ and Tall- e Bakun’a’ sorted from the earliest era to the latest.
Analyzing elements and visual principles resulted in image priorities which include density of motifs, compositional structure of illustration and its elements, and type and repetition of motifs.
In Tall- e Bakun b's findings, vessel forms are limited. line is the dominant visual element and repetition is the dominant visual principle. Many images are illustrated without using specific motifs but by repetition of visual elements like lines and primary geometric shapes. A visual texture which is derived from repetition of different kinds of lines is seen in most cases. Upper and lower margins are created by repetition of paralleled horizontal lines. Tall- e Bakun a and b 's images extremely vary in terms of image variety, formation of motifs are proficiency in composition. The difference is so that any evolutionary relation even while considering the middle Fars interval seems impossible. There's a density of motifs in image frames, margins, in Tall- e Bakun a's findings. Variety of motifs outnumbers variety of composition and structure.
Variety is seen in motifs, composition, marginalization, texture usage and repetition of motifs but variety of motifs served creating images more than any other variant in Tall- e Bakun a. Visual elements were complementary in most images. However, a few vessels were illustrated only by using them. Different textures were seen in vessels with different uses. Visual equality between positive shapes and negative space is the unique feature of many images in this era. Movement and rotation are mostly observed in not band-based structures or animal expressive motifs. Cone shaped vessels are among the special forms of this region.
After visual analysis and visual criteria determination of motifs, vessels were classified as two major categories of either Fully-Painted or Scattered-Painted. Each category 's images were also classified into subgroups based on visual structure, elements of structure, quantity, type and method of motifs' repetition. More than 90 percent of available vessels specially the scattered ones have band-based structures. Most images are fully painted with a single row or two rows of motifs.
The first step in recognizing Tall- e Bakun's images is categorizing outcomes of Tall- e Bakun findings' visual analysis. This proposes many questions, forms several hypotheses, and provides ground for formation of future related research as a preliminary study. The analysis template may be used for other areas' findings and matching the results from different areas helps researchers achieve important results related to painted potteries' visual of prehistoric Iran Plateau. Therefore, recognising part of Iran 's visual art history and motifs awareness may come up with creation of artworks by Iranian artists.