عنوان مقاله [English]
Since fundamental social, economic and political changes have been occurred in the Bronze Age, the study of such changes and the growth of social complexity are important issues among archaeologists. Archaeological projects have yielded significant information about the small and large urban settlements and cities in Mesopotamia, Indus valley, south Turkmenistan and Iranian plateau in the Bronze Age. Which also takes into account the broad and dynamic trans-regional economic interactions and trades within these regions. These exchanges are extended from the cultures of Mohenjo-Daro in Sindh to the great cities of the Mesopotamia. The vast territory of Khorasan (regardless of the current political divisions), which accounts for about one fifth of the size of Iran, geographically located in a strategic area which connects cultures of the southern Turkmenistan, north of the Iran central plateau and the southeast region. This region in current geographical political divisions of Iran, consist of The Northern Khorasan, The Razavi Khorasan and the Southern Khorasan. However, the pre-historic archeologists never take this region seriously. Thus, a little archaeological research has been done on the Bronze Age, as well as other prehistoric cultures in the region. Meanwhile, in the south Turkmenistan, eastern Alborz and Sistan, the culmination of cultural flourishing occurred during the prehistoric era (apparently in the early Bronze Age). In the south of Turkmenistan, the culture of Namazga 4 had been found in large sites such as Namazga and Altyn-depe and the culture of black gray pottery in Eastern Alborz has been explored and discovered in vast sites like the Tepe Hissar and Tureng Tepe. The Namazga and Eastern Alborz cultures in the Bronze Age are considered to be the most significant cultures of the Bronze Age in Western Asia and Central Asia, which are of particular importance in regional and trans-regional studies. The excavations of Tappe Borj in 1380’s paved the way for prehistoric researches in Khorasan.