گزارش مقدماتی فصل اول کاوش نجات بخشی در محوطه‌ی «حاجی‌خان» فامنین-استان همدان معبد و نیایشگاهی نویافته از دوره‌ی مادها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا

2 عضو هیأت علمی پژوهشگاه میراث‌فرهنگی.

3 دکتری باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

10.22084/nbsh.2019.19926.2000

چکیده

با توجه به احداث پتروشیمی ابن‌سینای فامنین در استان همدان، محوطه‌ی باستانی حاجی‌خان در بخش میانی آن قرار گرفته بود. به‌دلیل اهمیت احداث پروژه و هم‌چنین قرار گرفتن محوطه‌ی باستانی در بخش میانی آن ضروری بود تا پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناختی در آن انجام گیرد؛ بنابراین برنامه‌ی پژوهشی فصل اول کاوش نجات‌بخشی در محوطه‌ی حاجی‌خان در زمستان 1395 و بهار 1396 انجام گرفت. محوطه‌ی باستانی حاجی‌خان در فاصله‌ی 2 کیلومتری روستای زرقان قرار دارد و دیوارهای پتروشیمی ابن‌سینای فامنین آن را محصور کرده‌اند و در فاصله‌ی 17 کیلومتری از شهر فامنین در استان همدان واقع گردیده است. اهداف اصلی این پژوهش ارائه‌ی نتایج کاوش و بحث در مورد کاربری و گاهنگاری است. پژوهش حاضر دارای رویکرد توصیفی-تحلیلی است و گردآوری اطلاعات به روش میدانی و کتابخانه‌ای انجام گرفته است. انجام کاوش در این محوطه منجر به شناسایی معبد و نیایشگاهی از دوره‌ی مادها گردید. این سازه‌ی خشتی دارای نقشه‌ی کاملاً چلیپایی است که با نقشه‌ای از پیش طراحی شده، 7 فضای معماری را دربر گرفته است که از طریق درگاهی و ورودی‌ها به همدیگر متصل می‌شوند. از مهم‌ترین اجزاء و عناصر معماری یافت‌شده از این معبد می‌توان به سکوی آتشدان مطبق، دیوارک جداکننده و سکوهای خشتی گرداگرد فضاهای شماره‌ی یک و دو اشاره کرد. در این معبد طاقچه‌های تزیینی، اثر انگشتان سازندگان معبد برروی تمام سطوح دیواره‌ها و خشت‌ها، پوشش کاهگل و اندود سفید رنگ برروی آن شناسایی شده است. معبد مادی نویافته حاجی‌خان از نظر عناصر و اجزاء معماری و یافته‌های سفالی قابل‌مقایسه با سایر محوطه‌های دوره‌ی ماد و آهن III از جمله: تپه نوشیجان، گونسپان‌تپه، تپه یلفان، موش‌تپه، باباجان‌تپه و گودین‌تپه است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Preliminary Report of First Season of Emergence Excavation in Haji Khan Tape, Famenin in Hamadan Province; A Newfound Median Temple

نویسندگان [English]

  • esmail hemati azandaryani 1
  • mehrdad Malekzadeh 2
  • Hossein Naseri Someeh 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology in Bu-Ali Sina University
2 Assitstant Professor, Iranian Centre for Archaeological Research (ICAR)
3 Ph.D. in Archaeology, Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Due to the construction of the Ibn Sina Petrochemical Company in Hamadan province, Haji Khan Tape is located in the middle of this complex. As a matter of fact, it was necessary to carry out archaeological researches in this area. The first exploration season in the Haji Khan area in the vicinity of the Ibn Sina Petrochemical was conducted under the supervision of Esmail Hemati Azandaryani in the winter of 2016 and the spring of 2017. The Haji Khan Tape, 17 km from the city of Famenin in Hamadan province, is located at geographical coordinates of N 35˚01 ‘58.11 “and E 49˚01’16.85”, and is considered a part of the cultural domain of western Iran. The site is at 2 km from Zaraqan, a village close to the walls of the Ibn Sina Petrochemical Complex. In the following excavations, traces of architectural remains with a 165 cm wide wall was discovered, which led to several extended trenches in varying sizes and in the west, east and south of the above trenches. These all help identify several architectural spaces and findings including, a systematic and coherent architecture with chelepa (cross) plan with 7 spaces. Likewise, among other architectural elements of Haji Khan Temple, including the upright stepped fireplace (altar), the middle of the altar, the partition wall, niches in the walls (in Spaces 1, 2 and 3), and gateways between spaces, have a very close similarity with the other sites of median period such as: Nush-i Jan Tape, Gunepan Tape, Yalfan Tape, Moush Tape, Baba Jan Tape and Godin Tape.
Keywords: Hamadan, Temple, Haji Khan, Iron III, Median Period.
Introduction
Due to the construction of the Ibn Sina Petrochemical Company in Hamadan province, Haji Khan Tepe is located in the middle of this complex. As a matter of fact, it was necessary to carry out archaeological researches in this area. The first exploration season in the Haji Khan area in the vicinity of the Ibn Sina Petrochemical was conducted under the supervision of Esmail Hemati Azandaryani in the winter of 2016 and the spring of 2017.
After the arrival of the team and the beginning of exploration, most parts of the petrochemical complex were studied and identified. That led to the identification of three more stacks, hence; a total of 4 i.e. A (main stack), B, C and D, located at similar level were identified to study archeological remains. In this paper, the authors try to investigate the results of Stack A that led to the identification of a new temple from the Median period, which is briefly described below.
 
Background Research
For the first time, this tepe was identified during the archaeological surveys entitled “Investigation, Identification and Documentation of Archeological Remains of Shara and Famenin in Hamadan” by Motarjim and his team. The height of this tepe is about 4 meters from its surrounding, and except for southern and southeastern parts, rest of it is severely damaged. The main problem in exploring the Haji Khan enclosure was the destruction of the site by heavy machinery, including bulldozers, loaders, and other mechanical equipment for leveling and building infrastructure for the petrochemical project. Likewise, part of the destruction was the outcome of digging by antique smugglers, which caused problems throughout the archeological excavation of the site.
 
Site Location
The Haji Khan Tepe, 17 km from the city of Famenin in Hamadan province, is located at geographical coordinates of N 35˚01 ‘58.11 “and E 49˚01’16.85”, and is considered a part of the cultural domain of western Iran. The site is at 2 km from Zaraqan, a village close to the walls of the Ibn Sina Petrochemical Complex. In other words, Haji Khan is located in the northern part of Hamadan, in the center of Famenin Plain, and 500 meters from the main tributary of the Ghare-Chai River (in the west of the tepe). This tepe was present there prior to the construction of the petrochemical Company in the middle of agricultural lands of Zaraqan.
 
Excavation
Prior to excavation, mapping and topography and networking of the site were carried out. The first was Trench GH34 measuring 5×10 m, from where no traces of architectural or other remains were found. However, in this section, enough information could be obtained about pottery fragments, and it was distinguished that they were related to Iron Age III (possibly Median era). After reaching to the bottom of the above trench, the excavation location was shifted to the elevated part of the tepe and the exploratory stages were carried out on Trench CD34 and Trench EF34 measuring 15×10 m and 5×10 m respectively. In the following excavations, traces of architectural remains with a 165 cm wide wall was discovered, which led to several extended trenches in varying sizes and in the west, east and south of the above trenches. These all help indentify several architectural spaces and findings including, a systematic and coherent architecture with chelepa (cross) plan, which will be described below:
 
Architectural Remains
After exploring Stack A of Haji Khan, there discovered a temple with a chelepa (cross) plan, consisting of seven spaces of varying size and dimension. However, due to absence of excavation at all external parts of this temple, one could not comment on its exact outer dimension. In other words, as long as all walls and spaces are not unearthed and external parts of the temple are excavated, it is impossible to give the dimension of the external plan of the temple. Moreover, in the process, the length of the interior of the structure in north-south direction found to be 2015 cm while the width in the eastern-western direction was 1555 cm.  Taking into account the thickness of the walls i.e. 160 cm, its dimension reached to about 2335 ×1875 cm (23.35 × 18.55 m). It is important to note that there is evidence of adobe support in the outer walls.
The temple walls are made of bricks (measuring 42×25×12 cm) and clay/mortar (with an average 12 cm thickness), in a way that except mortar there was nothing between the bricks. In fact, the layer itself has had a role of mortar. It seems to be no bond between the bricks, but builders used an interesting method of fastening i.e. the bricks were arranged with little space and filled with plaster or mortar.
It should be noted that the dimensions of bricks of this tepe is similar to the rest of Median sites including Nush-i Jan (40 × 25 × 12), Moush Tepe (42 × 24 × 11), Gunespan (42×25×12 cm) and Godin Tepe (41×25×13).
About gateways and entrances, it should be noted that there are two connecting gateways between Space 1 and 2, as well as Space 2 and 3, which are 100 cm wide, 156 cm long and a depth of walls thickness i.e. 160 cm. They are covered by arc-shaped doorways, similar to those in other sites, including Nush-i Jan, Godin and Moush Tepe. Unfortunately, due to destruction incurred by mechanical equipment and smelting drill holes by smugglers, it is not possible to accurately comment on the type and mode of gateways between spaces.
In Spaces 1, 2, and 3 of the temple, niches (from the floor to the end of the crescent) 40 cm wide, 70 cm long and 30 cm deep are visible that were created by placing two oblique bricks.
Similar niches are found in other Median and Achaemenid sites, including Nush-i Jan, GunespanTepe, Godin Tepe, Baba Jan, Ziweyeh, Ozbaki.
Among available spaces, Number 1 and 2 are visible with platforms attached to the wall.
In all stages of exploration, spaces between walls were searched in a precise and systematic way, and utmost care was taken to find remains and evidence. It was distinguished that Space 1, 2, 3 due to the available evidence (altar, platforms etc….) apparently seemed to be important ones but there is no traces of filling and all parts of the walls are filled with rubble and dirt. But in Spaces 4, 5, and 6, evidence of filling was found to be brick, mud and soil materials. (Unfortunately, due to drilling by antique traffickers and the destruction of the site by mechanical devices, it was not possible to explore the bottom of these spaces, hence; there is little details about these fillings). Similar fillings were found in other sites of this period, including Nush-i Jan, Moush Tepe, Ozbaki, Zarbolagh and Ulug Tepe.
 
Conclusion
Potteries of this site are simple, buff without any particular decorations, and are in a variety of colors. They contain a little percentage of gray wares and the majority of buff with good built and sufficient baking. Potteries were made using wheel as handmade samples are rarely found. Almost all of the pottery samples, except those with mica particles, are covered with clay, and enjoy adequate polishing that are similar to samples of other Median sites such as Nush-i Jan Tepe, Moush Tepe, Gunespan tepe, Yelfan, Godin, Baba Jan, Ozbaki, Zarbolagh and Sialk.
Likewise, among other architectural elements of Haji Khan Temple, including the upright stepped fireplace (altar), the middle of the altar, the partition wall, niches in the walls (in Spaces 1, 2 and 3), and gateways between spaces, have a very close similarity with the other sites of median period such as: Nush-i Jan Tape, Gunepan Tape, Yalfan Tape, Moush Tape, Baba Jan Tape and Godin Tape.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hamadan
  • Temple
  • Haji Khan
  • Iron III
  • Median Period
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