عنوان مقاله [English]
Sarayan region is one of the most studied areas of South Khorasan archaeology in recent years which has not been many studies. This area comprises two parts from landscape: mountainous and plain. These parts have provided environmentally favorable locations for settlements formation in past. As the formation of early settlements have always been dependent to environmental factors. one of these approaches in archeological studies is the study of the settlement pattern and analysis investigating the formation process of archeological sites in environmental contexts. It seem human interactions with the environment in the South Plain of Sarayan causing a distinct landscape. Information and awareness of settlement pattern of area could improve the perception of its cultural landscapes. In the past, this kind of analysis was done through traditional methods but nowadays analysis of settlement pattern is done by different software like ArcGIS that results in real and accurate information.
The present study investigates 16 settlements of the Chalcolithic and Bronze ages in Sarayan region that were identified in archaeological survey of Sarayan. This reserch studies the settlement pattern recognition of the pre-historic period in this region for the first time. The most important questions are how settlements are formed in the region and factors affecting settlements formation during the Chalcolithic and Bronze ages. Therefore, first, were performed typological comparison of the data and the settlements chornological then, GIS software was used to analyze and identify settlement patterns of Sarayan area with various factors of natural and human geography. Accordingly, various variables were analyzed such as precipitation, rivers and environmental contexts. These analyzes showed that different variables have an important influence on the settlements formation. These variables include elevation code, temperature status, access to permanent water sources. Even the number of sites have been created on the border of permanent rivers in this region.