عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
This paper explores man-environment relationships during the prehistoric periods. It calculates the main factors affecting the establishment of prehistoric settlements in Sarfiroozabad rural district, south of Kermanshah County, which is south-eastern extension of Mahidasht. The research has been done on the basis of Environmental archaeology according to archaeological surface surveying data. The Principal Component Analysis method has been used to investigate the measure of natural and cultural factors involve in the prehistoric settlement patterns of the region. Applying binary indicator variables, both natural and cultural, the paper has been based on the standardized PCA analysis, with Eigen values > 1 kept, followed by some sort of rotation to better distribute variance, to examine principal factors involved in the distribution of human settlements pattern and it’s reshaping through the time. It found that some parts of the region with present day settlements and population density are those of better populated in prehistoric times. The general patterns of settlement distribution of the studied region are mainly unchanged through the long-term processes of man-environment relationship. The results also show that the impacting factors on settlement distribution patterns were different in every prehistoric period. The results could be used to reconstruction of man-environment interactions of the region to apply it in contemporary environmental management of it. One of the advantages of the project was its purposefulness which led to recognition of more than 300 archaeological sites over that small area. An important achievement of the project was discovering very earlier occupational evidences than what which was revealed from Mahidasht; resulting to a reconsideration of the origins of Neolithic settlements of the region such as Tepe Sarab. A post surveying analytical study planned to gain a deeper insight about the characteristics of prehistoric settlement distribution over Sarfirouzabad. Two methods of GIS-based analyses and PCA statistical evaluations helped us to extract the main factors affecting prehistoric site distribution on the valley. The results show a decisive influential role of environment combined with its different subsistence potentialities played in the prehistoric site distribution patterns. There is also a considerable distinction between isolated and clustered settlements in their distributions over the valley through prehistoric times. Nevertheless, a more comprehensive understanding of prehistoric settlement conditions would be achieved just through archaeological excavating of key sites of the valley. The study aims to investigate and detect distribution patterns of prehistoric sites on the basis of their spatial relations. Applying Principal Component Analysis method, prehistoric sites of the valley evaluated according to three kinds of spatial relations among them including relation between contemporaneous settlements; relation between settlements and their adjacent sites of past period; and relation between prehistoric settlements and modern ones. In such a way, it could be possible to take into account attributes other than natural ones and consider potential cultural factors affecting settlement locating during prehistoric times. It is not to overleap the natural and environmental factors, but to examine site distributions according to their relations as well; as if each of them is a node on the complicated network of occupying the valley through different periods. it should probably be impossible to get a comprehensive understanding of prehistoric settlement conditions of the region unless the excavations carried out to establish secure chronology. The current results are mainly based on relative chronology of surface sherds compared to the same material recovered accurately in temporal order from the stratigraphic deposits of Mahidasht. However there is necessity to have absolute datings of prehistoric evidences of the valley. Careful surveying and identifying ancient settlements of the valley made it possible to take into account analytical studies of locating, distributing, relocating and evolution of prehistoric settlements during various periods, but a need to widespread investigations supported by archaeological excavations still remained to have a comprehensive understanding about mechanisms engaged in the formation and evolution of settlements through the time.