شواهدی از نفوذ فرهنگی حسونا به شرق زاگرس مرکزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه باستانشناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد همدان

10.22084/nbsh.2019.18672.1915

چکیده

فرهنگ حسونا یکی از فرهنگ‌های اولیه‌ی دوران روستانشینی زاگرس است که بعد از کشف محوطه‌ی حسونا به‌عنوان یک شاخص برای این دوران مطرح گردید. این فرهنگ ابتدا در نواحی شمالی بین‌النهرین و سپس در مناطق دیگری نظیر ترکیه و شمال‌غرب ایران یافت گردید. از شروع لایه‌ی II حسونا سفال جدید آشپزخانه‌ای به‌نام سینی‌های پوست‌کنی یافت شد که به‌دلیل کاربردی بودن به‌گونه‌ای گسترده در مناطقی بیرون از مرزهای فرهنگ حسونا نیز دیده شد. این سفال بزرگ و مسطح دارای کف مقعر و لبه‌هایی با شیب ملایم به خارج و سطح داخلی پوشیده از برجستگی یا شیارهای عمیق و یا سوراخ‌دار است. پس از این‌که در دشت‌های همدان نیز با چنین نمونه‌هایی برخورد شد که شباهت‌های زیادی با این‌گونه سفا‌ل‌ها داشت، با روش پژوهش کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی با رویکرد توصیفی-تحلیل و با طرح پرسش‌هایی درباره‌ی شیوه ارتباط شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی با بین‌النهرین و این‌که اساساً از لحاظ زیست‌محیطی این دشت‌ها می‌تواند منجر به ایجاد الگوی خاص فرهنگی متأثر از فرهنگ حسونا شود؟ این پژوهش شکل‌گرفت و با رویکردی بوم‌شناختی، با فرض این‌که تشابهات فرهنگی ایران و بین‌النهرین، حداقل در نشانه‌های عمومی، از مشابهت‌های زیست‌محیطی تأثیر پذیرفته و این‌که تغییرات فرهنگی در واکنش به تغییرات روابط بوم‌شناختی خود را نشان می‌دهد، ادامه یافت. وجود این نمونه‌های مشابه در دشت‌های همدان، می‌تواند شواهدی از نفوذ فرهنگی آن در حدود هشت سده‌ی بعد در منطقه‌ی شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی باشد و این درحالی‌ست که شواهد این نفوذ در مناطق مرکزی و غربی‌تر زاگرس‌مرکزی کمتر دیده شده و با یافت‌شدن نمونه‌های دیگری در مناطق شرقی‌تر و شمالی‌تر استان همدان این بحث شکل‌گرفت که می‌توان یک مسیر منحنی بزرگ از شمال غرب ایران به‌سمت نواحی مرکزی‌تر و سپس غرب ایران برای جابه‌جایی این تکنیک ساخت سفال پیشنهاد داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evidences of Hassuna Culture Influence to the East of Central Zagros Region, Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • behzad balmaki
Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch
چکیده [English]

Hassuna culture is one of the early periods in the Initial Village of Zagros that was indicated as an index for these periods after the excavation of Hassuna site. This culture was found the first in the northern Mesopotamia and then in other places such as Turkey and northwestern Iran. At the beginning of level II Hassuna, new thick pottery has been found. This culture also has characteristic streaky assemblages such as pottery so-called “Husking Tray Ware” that belong to the transitional Chalcolithic period in Mesopotamia. Finding some samples in the Hamedan plains, which were highly similar to those potteries, many questions were raised about the relationship of the eastern central Zagros with Mesopotamia and if the environment is capable of resulting such a culture or not. This study is conducted with an ecological approach, hypothesizing that the cultural similarities of Iran and Mesopotamia have been influenced by environmental similarities, even in minimum scales, and if the cultural changes occur in reaction to the changes of ecological relations. Finding such similar samples in Hamedan plain can be an evidence of its cultural influences in about eight centuries later in the eastern regions of central Zagros, although the evidence of this influence is seen lesser in the west and central areas of central Zagros. With finding other samples in eastern and northern regions of Hamedan province, we can suggest that a giant curved path from the north-west of Iran to the more centric and then western regions for transporting such a technic in pottery making. It seems that a curved path can be considered for this culture. And this path can be from the north of Mesopotamia reaches the lake Urumia and from there in the natural ways of Zanjan province, especially the Abhar river basin, into the plain of Hamedan
Keywords: Hassuna, Husking Tray Wares, Hamedan Plain, Chalcolithic Period, East of Central Zagros.
Introduction & Method
The northern plains of Alvand that is located in the administrative area of Hamedan province, the center of Hamedan province, is 1813 meters above the sea level. The highest mountain in this region is Alvand, with a peak height of 3580 m, and the lowest point is the Razan plain with height of 1700m. The river networks in this region can be divided into two parts, one ending in the Persian Gulf in the south of Iran and the other part reaching the Qom Lake in the center of Iran. These mountainous areas have always been the linking path between east and west of Zagros and have been one of the significant linking paths between the Iranian plateau and Mesopotamia.
On the other hand, researches conducted on the Chalcolithic period in the plains of Hamedan indicate that at the same time as the Godin X (Dalma period), we are faced with the increase of density of pottery findings compared to the previous periods. Dolma’s culture is also well known as the dominant culture of the early and middle chalcolithic period, and its expansion is evident in vast areas of the northwest and west of Iran.
Among these clay samples, typical samples of rough pottery similar to those “Husking Tray Ware” of the Neolithic period to Chalcolithic period in Mesopotamia and this can be evidence of the enormous cultural influences around eight centuries later in the eastern part of the central Zagros. Hassuna culture is one of the early periods in the initial village of Zagros that was indicated as an index for these periods after the excavation of Hassuna site. This culture was first found in the northern Mesopotamia and then in other places such as Turkey and northwestern Iran. This study is conducted with an ecological approach, hypothesizing that the cultural similarities of Iran and Mesopotamia have been influenced by environmental similarities, even in minimum scales, and if the cultural changes occur in reaction to the changes of ecological relations. At this stage, we have visited and reviewed the Chalcolithic period sites, which there was no necessary information about them in hand, and we collected the specific information for each area to obtain essential information for each analytical work. The scope of our study was to study all the plains of the northern mountains of Alvand, Hamedan, including the plains of Bahar, Hamedan, Kabodrahang, Razan, and Famenin.
 
Identified Traces
In five sites in the northern plains of Hamedan, some wares were found that were similar to that reported in the Hassuna sitese area, with the difference that, as earlier mentioned in the introduction, these potters have been found in sites belonging to the Chalcolithic eriod (Dalma Phase) period. In the meantime, Taze Kand was stratigraphically studied and the other sites have just been surveyed.
Among the  Dalma findings of Taze Kand, most of which are plain clay with a red coat and a large amount of them were impressed, with simple shapes with rough pottery with parallel grooves or bumps on the body of the pottery With a technique similar to that found in Husking tray wares, in other sites of the Hamedan plain, such as the Cholanghi Tepe, there is also a kind of pottery with a technique similar to the clay pottery of Hassuna. Other areas include the sites of the Matrook Tepe I and II, and Sari-Tape. Husking tray ware are a large and flat pottery with concave bottom, usually about 40 to 60 centimeters in length. Its rims with a slight slope of exterior are about 15 centimeters, and its entire interior has prominent appendages and deep or perforated grooves, or with a pointed and pointed tip. In addition to the type of dentin and groove of this type, it was also found in the study area. According to archaeologists, these trays were used to separate peel from grains. The observed pottery in the Hamedan plains also has a red and often rough coat with inadequate baking. The mixture used in these potters is a combination of plants and minerals. Among the plant material, it is straw and other vegetables. The used Mining compounds include sand and various microstructures. These potteries, other than daisy, or the added and neglected roses, lack special decoration.
 
Conclusion
the environmental conditions of this area, in spite of relative similarities with the western regions, the more centralized regions of the Zagros, Kermanshah, Ilam and Kurdistan provinces, there are differences in the type of vegetation and climatic conditions. On the other hand, there are specific archaeological findings (pottery similar to the Hassunan technique), which is more commonly observed in the Hamadan plain and reported less in the western regions. Regardless of these particular findings, a large part of the archaeological findings of Hamadan during the Chalcolithic period is comparable to the plains of the central Zagros or, in other words, the Central Western Iran.
Regarding the above mentioned, the scattering range of the similar pottery tray in Hamedan plain is widely spread, and a particular route has to be drawn from the eastern and northern parts of Hamedan plain. On the other hand, due to the existence of similar findings in Zanjan province and Azerbaijan (the most original material) and their entering into the northern plains of Hamedan province, it seems that a curved path can be considered for this culture. And this path can be from the north of Mesopotamia reaches the lake Urumia and from there in the natural ways of Zanjan province, especially the Abhar river basin, into the plain of Hamedan.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hassuna
  • Husking Tray Wares
  • Hamedan Plain
  • Chalcolithic Period
  • East of Central Zagros

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