بازنگری در گاهنگاری دورهی مفرغ قدیم شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی مبتنی‌بر لایه‌نگاری تپه گریران الشتر1

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری باستان شناسی دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا.

2 دانشیار گروه باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا .

10.22084/nbsh.2019.18562.1901

چکیده

عصر مفرغ، یکی از ادوار فرهنگی پیش‌ازتاریخ ایران محسوب می‌گردد. در این رابطه، یکی از مناطق مهم فرهنگی ایران در عصر مفرغ، منطقه‌ی زاگرس‌مرکزی است. باوجود کاوش‌ها و بررسی‌های باستان‌شناسی متعددی که در این منطقه انجام شده، گاهنگاری عصر مفرغ منطقه‌ی زاگرس‌مرکزی همچنان دارای اشکالات عدیده است. این مشکل به‌ویژه در ناحیه‌ی شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی و لرستان بیشتر به‌چشم می‌خورد. در این ناحیه، گاهنگاری رایج در تپه گودین از حدود 5 دهه‌ی پیش تاکنون، مبنای گاهنگاری عصر مفرغ منطقه بوده است. کاوشگران، گاهنگاری تپه گودین را به‌گونه‌ای تنظیم نموده‌اند که موجب شده خلأ فرهنگی در نیمه‌ی اول هزاره‌ی سوم قبل‌ازمیلاد در بخش‌های وسیعی از شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی شکل بگیرد. دوره‌ی IV گودین هم‌زمان با مفرغ قدیم درنظر گرفته شده که با فرهنگ یانیقی (کورا-ارس) معرفی شده است. با توجه به عدم مشاهده‌ی این دوره در نواحی گسترده‌ای در زاگرس‌مرکزی، گاهنگاری این نواحی دچار مشکل گردیده است. نگارندگان در این پژوهش سعی نموده‌اند با روش تاریخی-تحلیلی، و از طریق تحلیل و تطبیق یافته‌های لایه‌نگاری تپه گریران الشتر، بخشی از پرسش‌های مربوط به گاهنگاری شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی را پاسخ دهند؛ بنابراین، در این پژوهش سعی شده تا به پرسش‌های ذیل پرداخته شود: گاهنگاری عصر مفرغ تپه گریران به چه صورتی است؟ و خلأ دوره‌ی مفرغ قدیم در ناحیه‌ی شرق زاگرس را چگونه می‌توان از طریق گاهنگاری تپه گریران رفع نمود؟ در این راستا، داده‌های سفالی سه گمانه‌ی پلکانیW.260،  W.275a و W.275b مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار گرفته و 44 نمونه سفال مربوط به بافت مفرغ قدیم گونه‌شناسی شده‌اند. مطالعات صورت گرفته نشان‌داد که در دوره‌ی مفرغ قدیم انواعی از سفال مربوط به فازهای III:6 و III:5 و همچنین سفال دو رنگ رواج داشته است؛ بنابراین، در لرستان و شرق زاگرس‌مرکزی در نیمه‌ی اول هزاره‌ی سوم قبل‌ازمیلاد انواعی از سفال‌های منقوش رنگی رواج داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Review of the Early Bronze Era Chronology in West of Central Zagros (Based on Stratigraphy of Tepe Gariran in Aleshtar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Heydari 1
  • abbas Motarjem 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate Archaeology in Bu-Ali Sina University
2 Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology in Bu-Ali Sina University
چکیده [English]

The Bronze era is one of the most important cultural periods of pre-history of Iran. The importance of period is more by the period changes and different issues of Bronze era in Iran plateau. So, central Zagros area is one of important cultural area of Iran in Bronze era. In this area archaeological studies and excavations were done; but like other Iran areas, central Zagros has some problems chronologically the problem is seen more in West of central Zagros in Lorestan. In the area, Godin Tepe was chronological base of Bronze era from five decades ago. In this ancient area, excavations set chronology in a way that causes culture vacuity in wide parts of west of central Zagros. The Godin IV period is considered with Early Bronze period that is introduced by Kora – Arax culture. Considering to not seen this area in wide parts of central Zagros, the chronology of these areas have problem. For this, the writers tried to analyze chronological data of Tepe Gariran to solve some of chronological problems in West of central Zagros. in this way, data trenches of W.260, W.275a and W.275b were analyzed and 44 samples of ceramic related to Early Bronze were studied. The studies showed that some kinds of ceramic of phases III:6 and III:5 Godin and also bi-colored ware were popular in Early Bronze. This ancient mound is considered one of largest area in East of central Zagros. The studies in the mound showed the enriched culture of it. The excavation of it showed that there is no cultural vacuity in Tepe Gariran layers and sequence of cultural layers is without interruption. In addition to Godin Tepe, it is used of Western parts of central Zagros and Posht-Koh to set Tepe Gariran chronology. The studies showed that in Early Bronze era, some kinds of painted wares related to Godin III and bi-colored were popular.
  
Introduction
Before scientific excavation of Godin Tepe in Kangavar, Tepe Geyan in Nahavand was formed chronological base in West of Iran for decades. Because of those excavations of Tepe Geyan was not scientific stratigraphically, after excavations as a chronological reference in the Bronze era (Young, 1969). The chronology of Early Bronze era in Godin Tepe that was for excavations of 1960 S, is base on deposit layer IV with Kora-Arax cultural characterstic. Later field studies showed that spreading of Godin IV ceramic characteristic had not been gone to Chamchamal plain to the West of central Zagros and Holeylan and never seen in South of central Zagros in Lorestan. Therefore, now we do not have exact knowledge of transition period of Chalcolithic era to Bronze era and wide parts of nowadays Lorestan. In middle and Late Bronze period which are recognized long Godin III, all Western areas and Southern parts of central Zagros were influenced by this culture  (Henrickson, 1986).
After a few decades of Godin Tepe excavations, some excavations sites done in central Zagros which followed of Godin chronological method and mostly did not address to the main problem of Early Bronze era. In South – Eastern areas of central Zagros and contemporary Lorestan, for not seeing of Godin IV ceramic, there is not clear statue of chronology in Early Bronze era. This factor caused that the middle and new periods of Bronze era are not trustful in the parts. In order to clear had done the excavation of Tepe Gariran in Aleshtar in autumn 2017.
This ancient mound is considered one of largest area in East of central Zagros. The studies in the mound showed the enriched culture of it. The excavation of it showed that there is no cultural vacuity in Tepe Gariran layers and sequence of cultural layers is without interruption. In addition to Godin Tepe, it is used of Western parts of central Zagros and Posht-Koh to set Tepe Gariran chronology. The studies showed that in Early Bronze era, some kinds of painted wares related to Godin III and bi-colored were popular.
So, in this study, it is tried to answer to the following questions: How is the chronology of Tepe Gariran in Bronze era? How can the Early Bronze era vacuity of West of central Zagros remove by Tepe Gariran chronology?
 
Research Findings
Excavation was started in the western side and up of hill. Step tranch about 2 meters wide were identified for this task that depending on the angle of 260 degrees relative to the north direction was named W.260. Registration method of materials was based on locus. Change the texture of the soil, color, composition, weakness and stiffness the most important factors was the registration of locuses. Two other step tranches were created on the western side of the hill that regarding their location in the north direction, they were named W.275a and W.275b. The largest soil of excavation was carried out in these two tranches. A total of 4 locuses were identified in the W.260. The deepest point in this tranch is in locus 1003, -121 cm relative to zero point. After re-survey the hill surface and at the distance of about 90 meters W.260 trench, W.275a was selected for create a new trench. The width of this trench was also chosen two meters. Surface texture trench consisting of loose and disintegrated soil and various compositions of different ages, locus 2000 was named. This trench has 10 locuses, including the Godin V to Godin post III: 2 era. The W275b is located at a vertical height of -445 cm from the highest level of the W.275a. The superficial locus in the W.275b was named locus 3000. This trench has traces Godine III at the lowest level and at the highest level the new Godin III phases.
 
Conclusion
After following studies on trenches excavated in the Grariran Tepe (W.260, W.275a and W.275b) was discovered that there was a cultural continuity from the late Uruk (Godin V) to the Bronze Age (Godin III) is in the Grariran Tepe. In the other words, none of these 3 trenches wasn’t observed cultural hiatus from the late Uruk (late fourth millennium BC) to the Bronze Age. Excavation stratigraphy in Grariran Tepe shows that the Godin III period has continued after the Uruk period (Godin V) in this ancient hill. But what has been studied in this study, is ceramic findings for locus 1000 in W.260, locus 2007 in W.275a and locus 3007 and locus 3008 in W.275b trench that there are mainly related to the phases III: 6 and III: 5 of Godin. The important thing about these locos is that a number of pottery of the two-colored old bronze (early third millennium BC) of Posht-Koh area was also obtained with the ceramics of Phases III: 6 and III: 5 in Godin. Therefore, there are two important factors in relation to the chronology of the Grarian Tepe during the early Bronze Age, includes a lack of a cultural hiatus after the Uruk period (Godin V) and Godin III: 6 and III: 5 are the adjacent cultural material with a two-colored old bronze in this hill.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chronology
  • Early Bronze
  • Tepe Gariran
  • West of Central Zagros
  • Godin Tepe

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