عنوان مقاله [English]
Brick is one of the most important and efficient materials since ancient Iran to the Islamic period. It has always played a significant role both in the construction of buildings and in their appearance. During the Seljuk period, brick grew so much that it was used to decorate many buildings and its various methods of brickwork were invented to decorate the appearance of buildings in a brilliant way. After many ups and downs, brickwork was widely used again in the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties, and another brilliant new period was formed. During this period, brick were amazingly used to fulfill a dual purpose, both decoration and construction in many buildings. Therefore, in this study the main purpose is a visual study and social factors affecting the brickwork decorations of the Qajar and Pahlavi buildings in Tehran. So the question is: what are the brick decorations of Tehran buildings during the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties and what are the social factors affecting it? The research method is descriptive-analytical and data collection is based on library studies, especially field studies (viewing samples and photographing them). According to studies, the architectural decorations of this period are influenced by three main factors; 1-Decorative elements of Islamic art of previous periods (eslimi, dragon, Qatar-bandi, geometric motif, lattice, Gol-chin, Raj-chin, scales); 2-European ornaments (floral and embossed ornaments, European Acanthus, Venetian dentil, Festoon, Foliate, vase); 3-Decorations of ancient Iran (Persian Acanthus, Palmette, lotus flower, meandr, winged angel, human battle with mythical creatures, crown and feathers, stairs, symmetrical arrangement of birds, eagle). Some motifs mixed together beautifully and these combinations not only weren’t distorting, but also in some cases created unique embellishments represented the independent identity of the designs. Moreover, Qajar brickwork is more decorative than Pahlavi brickwork; However, Pahlavi brickwork shows deeper meanings due to the spread of ancient nationalism.
Keywords: Architectural Ornament, Qajar and Pahlavi Art, Brickwork, Brick Motifs.
During the almost 250 years of the capital of Tehran from Qajar until now, many changes have taken place in the urban landscape. Since architecture and its decorations are among the arts that are directly related to human beings, it is obvious that social influences and developments are manifested in them hence decoration of buildings reflects the current social changes at the time. After nearly a thousand years of brilliant Seljuk brickwork, it was widely used again in the Qajar and Pahlavi periods, and has a crucial role in recognizing the roots of Iran’s cultural and artistic identity. Therefore, studying and recognizing brick decorations in the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties is very important and it is feared that many of these works will be destroyed in the process of improvement and growth of urban planning and with the construction of modern buildings. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to preserve it as a valuable heritage as part of Iran’s identity at that time and its main purpose is a visual study and social factors affecting the brickwork decorations of the Qajar and Pahlavi buildings in Tehran. So the question is: what are the brick decorations of Tehran buildings during the Qajar and Pahlavi eras and what are the social factors affecting it? The other questions are: What parts of the buildings have been decorated? And what are the differences and commonalities of the Qajar and Pahlavi’s brick decorations? This research is applied one in terms of purpose and instead of generalizing the findings; it seeks a deep understanding of the studied phenomena. Therefore, it has been done with a qualitative (purposeful) approach. Sampling in this paper is sequential and the snowball method is used. In this regard, firstly, the buildings that have a national registration number ,which were identified by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism, are used; secondly, since not all samples are known, with the help of experts, written sources and especially field studies in the old areas of Tehran, other samples were identified. The process of searching for samples continued until there was not any new decoration in existing samples. The studied buildings are from districts 1, 2, 6, 7, 10 to 14 and 16. The number of samples is 168 buildings; the highest frequency is related to the old districts 11 and 12. The research method is descriptive-analytical and data collection is based on library studies, especially field studies (viewing samples and photographing them).
Some significant influences affected Iran construction since the time of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, from which society, culture and art were greatly changed. Three of these are as follows: European culture and art, ancient Iran culture and art, and the continuation of past traditional-Islamic art and culture (Keshmir Shekan, 2015, 11). European influences expanded greatly in the Naser al-Din Shah Qajar period with the expansion of contacts with Europeans through ambassadors, students, merchants, artists, etc., and had profound effects on all aspects of the country, especially art. Ancient Iran influences began since Fath Ali Shah from the masterpiece works of Shiraz, where he spent his time as prince, but reached its peak in the last few years of the Qajar period and the first Pahlavi period. Hence, the people who had expressed the concerns about having a national identity support and tried to rejuvenate it.
Architectural decorations also had these developments. According to the samples found, Due to the spread of extraversion in architecture, brickwork decorations are often used in the appearance of the building. These decorations are used around doors and windows and pediment, columns, facades, walls, minarets, balcony floors, inside pediment, roof and roof protections. In this research, brick motifs of Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties in Tehran were categorized as margins, decoration of walls, Single elements, and lattice works. The motifs found in the brickwork are as follows: 1- Elements of European art (motifs: floral and embossed ornaments, European Acanthus, Venetian dentil, Festoon, Foliate, vase); 2- Decorations of ancient Iran (motifs: Persian Acanthus, Palmette, lotus flower, meander, winged angel, human battle with mythical creatures, crown and feathers, stairs, symmetrical arrangement of animals and birds facing or back, eagle), 3- Decorative elements of Islamic art of previous periods (motifs: Eslimi, Dragon, Qatar-Bandi, Geometric Motif, lattice, Gol-chin, Raj-chin, scales).
According to studies, the brick ornament of Qajar and Pahlavi periods are influenced by three main factors- European architecture ornaments, ancient Iran art, and traditional-Islamic art. European architectural elements since late Nasser al-Din Shah Period and the ornaments of ancient Iran since Ahmad Shah period (which indicates the desire to connect with the artistic identity of those great ancient governments), influenced brick decorations and continued until the end of the first Pahlavi period. Moreover, the decorations of traditional-Islamic art continued equally during the Qajar and Pahlavi periods.
Firstly, European brickwork was copied, but gradually since the end of Ahmad Shah’s period it was combined with the traditional-Islamic art and ancient Iran art beautifully. Therefore, not only wasn’t the mixture of them distorting, but in some cases, those unique embellishments represented the independent identity. It is obvious that it is impossible to draw a clear line between the characteristics of brickwork in the Qajar and Pahlavi periods, because the developments are very gradual, but in comparison, there is not presence of lotus flowers, human battle with mythical creatures and stairs in the motifs of the Qajar, but one example of a dragon was found which were affected by traditional-Islamic art. At the beginning of the first Pahlavi, motifs like Foliate, Festoon and European acanthus leaf used a lot alongside of others, but the vase pattern was declined. All in all, it can be said that the period of Ahmad Shah and specifically the first Pahlavi period the decoration of brickwork were gone beyond in terms of decoration and have many meanings and symbols, so brickwork was used not only as a decoration, but also as a medium for conveying concepts and values. Moreover, It is important to say the motifs are altogether used on the appearance of buildings- around doors and windows and pediment, columns, facades, walls, minarets, balcony floors, inside pediment, roof and roof protections.