عنوان مقاله [English]
Both Iranian and Arab army chiefs and corps commanders would apply different types of music in the battlefields, barracks and military camps since very long time ago. Being aware of the influence music has, the campaign heads would benefit this tool to reach their own military goals i.e. encouraging soldiers to fight as well as uplifting them, terrifying the enemy, giving commands, conveying messages, spreading the war news to the soldiers, and eventually entertaining the combatants whenever they were not on duty. Over centuries, music has been employed as an effective tool in exerting military tactics; moreover, it is to be said that the musicians, playing either martial or non-martial instruments, had a particular position in the campaign arrangement. These musicians would include musicians who would play the other instruments with strident sounds such as horn blowers, drummers [players of Kūs (large kettledrums) or Tabīra (waisted drums)] besides those playing daf (Persian frame drum) and barbat/oud (Persian lute-like instrument) and singers whose positions in the campaign arrangement would be determined according to the task each of them had. Martial instrument musicians, in the battlefields and military camps would either spread news and messages to the soldiers or cause the enemy to scare by playing the musical instruments all together simultaneously. On the other hand, the singers and minstrels would accompany the army in order to unwind the campaign and encourage them to fight more zealously and also increase their enthusiasm about the war as well as the concept of self-sacrificing. This type of music could be called encouraging martial music which had some particular traits in terms of melody and content; in these songs, the warriors’ bravery and gallantry would be praised, while their fears and weakness would be bashed and criticized. Rantings (rajazxāni) in which the fighter boasts about his own and his ancestors’ gallantry in a rhythmic way or through singing is one of these kinds. Based on the musical principles, special lays which are both exciting and exhilarating are appropriate for uplifting soldiers and prompting them to fight. Using this above-mentioned encouraging martial music has a long-time background in ancient Iran; the signs of such a thing could be witnessed in the Achaemenid period in the wars of Cyrus with the Assyrians and subsequently during Sassanid period as well. This type of music was also very much in use by the Dark-Age Arabs. After Islam emerged, military consultants would still recommend commanders to continue applying this effective tool in the wars on the battlefields. Focusing on the objectives which were supposed to be achieved by the use of music in the battlefields and military camps is a great assistance to understand the true status of music in the opinion of ancient nations like Iran. It also will finally improve our insight into the Iranian musical culture. The present paper attempts to comprehensively peruse different types of music played in the battlefields and military camps, encouraging martial music in particular, in addition to the desired goals they would procure. Therefore, here, presenting some evidence of the existence and prevalence of encouraging martial music among both the Iranians and Arabs in the course of a period spanning from the rise of Sassanian kings to the Mongolian invasion, the traits of this type of music and the objectives it would cover on the battlefields is going to be analyzed. The necessary information in this regard has been collected through a systematical study on different texts and written material, both poetry and prose, which all belong to over the period from 4th to the 9th centuries A.H. These texts consist of references and evidence of employing music in the battlefields by both the Iranians and the Arabs during our subject period of time.