ادوات سنگی و مقوله تولید و آماده‌سازی غذا در محوطه نوسنگی چیاسبز شرقی، سد سیمره

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه باستانشناسی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

چکیده

ادواتسنگی بهعنوان یکی از مهمترین یافتههای باستانشناسی مرتبط با دورهی نوسنگی بهشمار میروند. هرچند چنین یافتههایی، اساس تعریف و نامگذاری این دوره در ادبیات باستانشناسی دنیا بوده، اما معمولاً بهندرت و اغلب بهصورت سطحی، بهویژه در ایران، مورد توجه قرار گرفتهاند. این در حالی است که ادواتسنگی اغلب همگام با شروع کشاورزی و جهت آمادهسازی غذا توسط انسان تولید و استفاده شدهاند و همواره جزو جداییناپذیر شواهد باستانشناسی بهویژه در دوران پیشاز تاریخ بهشمار میآیند. علاوهبر مقوله معیشت و تولید غذا، با بررسی چنینیافتههایی اطلاعات مناسبی در ارتباط با کاربری فضایی، ساختار اجتماعی و نقش زنان در جوامع گذشته میتواند بهدست آید؛ اما مطالعه و ارزیابی این موضوعات نیازمند وجود نسبت بالای ادواتسنگی در کاوشهای گسترده در ارتباط با فضاهای معماری است. نظر به چنین مسائلی، این مقاله در پی معرفی و بررسی ادواتسنگی محوطهی چیاسبز شرقی در جهت بررسی مقوله تولید و آمادهسازی غذا توسط ساکنان آن است. طی فصل اول کاوش نجاتبخشی در این محوطه، گونههای مختلف سنگساب و هاون، دستههاون، دستاس و کوبنده بهدست آمد. بهنظر میرسد روند تولید و استفاده از گونههای مختلف ادواتسنگی در طول زمان توسط ساکنان چیاسبز شرقی همگام با روند کشت و اهلیسازی تمامعیار برخی از گونههای گیاهی بوده است. در این راستا، نسبت کوبندهها در لایههای تحتانی بیشتر بوده و با گذشت زمان بر میزان استفاده از سنگساب افزوده شده است. سنگساب در دیگر محوطههای نوسنگی منطقه نیز بهنحوی معنادار و در ارتباط با رشد و توسعه کشاورزی افزایش یافته است. از اینرو، بررسی ادواتسنگی چیاسبز شرقی هر چند بیانگر تولید و آمادهسازی غذا از ابتدای سکونت در آن بوده، اما نشان میدهد این مهم در طی زمان گسترش یافته و ساکنان محوطه اتکایی روزافزون به تولید و مصرف غذاهای گیاهی داشتهاند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ground Stone Tools and the Issue of Food Production and Preparation at Neolithic Site of East Chia Sabz, Seimarreh Dam

نویسنده [English]

  • hojat darabi
چکیده [English]

Ground stone is known as one of the most important artifacts in the Neolithic period. The production of a ground stone artifact can involve a whole host of manufacturing techniques, such as pounding, flaking, abrasion, polishing and even sometimes drilling. Although the “Neolithic” term is archaeologically relied upon the emergence of ground stone worldwide, this kind of artifact has ever rarely been given attention, especially in prehistoric Iran, in comparison with other archaeological materials. However, ground stone tools are mostly considered in relation with the emergence of agriculture as they were seemingly produced and applied for food preparation. Thus, they are usually known as the popular prehistoric implements, especially since the Neolithic beginning onward. In addition to subsistence and food processing, special analysis, social structure and the women’s roles in the past could also be paid attention by the consideration of ground stone tools. These issues, however, are based on a notable amount of the artifact associated with architectural spaces excavated in large scale. Taking the above mentioned issues, this article surveys the ground stone tools found at the Neolithic site of East Chia Sabz as the result of the first rescue archaeological excavation in 2009. This brings us informative data on the nature of food preparation in the site through time. Different types of ground stone including grinding slabs, mortars, pestle, hand stone and pounder were discovered. Both temporal and spatial distributions of the ground stone tools are seemingly consistent with the emergence of cultivation and then morphologically domestication of some plant species, including two-row barley, emmer and lentil. In this regard, the amount of pounder was larger in the lower layers while grinding slabs were increased through time. This issue is meaningfully seen at other Neolithic sites in western Iran indicating the development of agricultural activities and food preparation since the early Neolithic onward. Therefore, although the ground stone tools of East Chia Sabz not only show food preparation since the earliest time of occupation but also determine an increasing reliance upon production and consumption of plant foods. It should be noted that though ground stone tools are mostly assumed in relation with food preparation, they may have been used to process other materials such as pigments. In addition, they could have found a second function during their usage; for example, a grinding slab that had already been used to process the grains during an earlier phase, it might have been applied in building a wall in the later phase of occupation at a site. This kind of functional process should be given attention, notably during the excavations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ground Stone
  • Neolithic Period
  • East Chia Sabz
  • Food Production
  • Food Preparation

- صفایی‌راد، رضا، عزیزی، قاسم، محمدی، حسین و علیزاده لاهیجانی، حمید، 1393، «بازسازی تغییرات اقلیمی هولوسن و پلیئستوسن پسین منطقه زاگرس میانی با استفاده از شواهد گرده‌شناسی تالاب هشیلان»، جغرافیا و مخاطرات محیطی، شماره یازدهم: صص 19-1.

- دارابی، حجت، 1388، «گزارش فصل اول کاوش نجات بخشی محوطه نوسنگی بی‌سفال چیاسبز شرقی- سد سیمره»، آرشیو پژوهشکده باستان‌شناسی (منتشر نشده).

- دارابی، حجت، 1390، «ارزیابی مجدد فرآیند نوسنگی شدن زاگرس مرکزی: رهیافت‌های گذشته و چشم‌انداز آینده»، رساله‌ی دکتری باستان‌شناسی پیش‌از تاریخ، گروه باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران (منتشر نشده).

- دارابی، حجت، 1391، «نویافته‌های معماری از دوره نوسنگی در محوطه چیاسبز شرقی- سد سیمره»، مجله‌ی علمی ترویجی اثر، شماره 51: صص 55-46.

- دارابی، حجت، 1392، «صنایع‌سنگی محوطه چیاسبز شرقی، سد سیمره: تغییرات تکنولوژیکی از دوره انتقالی نوسنگی به نوسنگی بی‌سفال»، دوفصلنامه علمی پژوهشی پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی ایران، شماره 5: صص 24-7.

- علی‌بیگی، سجاد 1390؛ «تپه سراب یاوری: محوطه‌ای با سفال‌های بچه‌قورباغه‌ای در غرب دشت کرمانشاه»، مجله‌ی پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی مدرس، شماره چهارم و پنجم: صص 49-44.

- مک کارتر، سوزان فاستر 1390؛ نوسنگی، ترجمه‌: حجت دارابی و جواد حسین زاده، تهران، انتشارات سمیرا.

 

- Alibaigi, S., 2013, Tappeh Sarab-e Yavari: A Neolithic Site with Tadpole Ware on the Kermanshah Plain, West Central Zagros, in: R.Matthews and H. Fazeli Nashli (eds.), The Neolithisation of Iran, The Formation of New Societies, Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK: 49-54.

- Alizadeh, A., 2003, Excavation at the prehistoric Mound of Choga Bonut, Khuzestan, Iran, The University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Publication, vol. 120.

- Blumer, M.A. and Byrne, R., 1991, The Ecological Genetics of Domestication and the Origins of Agriculture, Current Anthropology 12 (1): 23-54.

- Brookes, I. A., Levine, L. D., and Dennell, R. W., 1982, Alluvial Sequence in Central West Iran and Implications for Archaeological Survey, Journal of Field Archaeology 9:285-299.

- Conard N. J. and Zeidi, M., 2013, The Ground Stone Tools from the Aceramic Neolithic Site of Chogha Golan, Ilam Province, Western Iran, in: F. Borrell, J. J. Ibanez and M. Molist (eds.) Stone Tools in Transition: From Hunter-Gatherers to Farming Societies in the Near East , Bellaterra (Barcelona) : Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Servei de Publicacions:365-75.

- Darabi, H., 2015, An Introduction to the Neolithic Revolution of the Central Zagros, Iran, BAR International Series 2746, Oxford.

- Darabi, H., 2014, Stone Vessels from the PPN Site of East Chia Sabz, Neo-Lithics 2/14: 8-12.

- Darabi, H., 2012, Towards Reassessing the Neolithization Process of Western Iran, Documenta Praehistoric 39:103-110.

- Darabi, H., Fazeli, H., Naseri, R., Riehl, S. and Young, R., 2013, The Neolithisation Process in the Seimareh Valley: Excavations at East Chia Sabz, Central Zagros, in: R.Matthews and H. Fazeli Nashli (eds.), The Neolithisation of Iran, The Formation of New Societies, Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK: 55-75.

- Darabi, H. and Glascock, M., 2013, Source of Obsidians found at East Chia Sabz, Journal of  Achaeological Science 40: 3804-9.

- Darabi, H., Naseri, R., Young, R. and Fazeli, H., 2011, Absolute Chronology of East Chia Sabz: A Pre-Pottery Neolithic site in Western Iran, Documenta Praehistorica 38:255-65.

- Ebeling, J.R. and Rowan, Y. M., 2004, The Archaeology of the Daily Grind: Ground Stone Tools and Food Production in the Southern Levant, Near Eastern Archaeology 67(2): 108-117.

- Gilchrist, R., 1999, Gender and Archaeology: Contesting the past, Routledge, USA and Canada.

- Gilead, I., 1998, The Foragers of the Upper Paleolithic Period, in: T. E. Levy (ed.), Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, Leicester University, London: 124-40

- Goring-Morris, A.N., 1987, At the Edge: Terminal Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers in the Negev and Sinai, BAR International Series 361, Oxford.

- Hole, F., 1977, Studies in the Archaeological History of the Deh Luran Plain: The Excavation of Chogha Sefid, Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology 9, Ann Arbor. The University of Michigan Press.

- Hole, F., Flannery, K.V. and Neely, J. A., 1969, Prehistory and Human Ecology on the Deh Luran Plain, Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology 1, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

- Kozlowski, S. K. and Aurenche, O., 2005, Territories, Boundaries and Cultures in the Neolithic Near East, BAR International Series 1362, Oxford.

- Kramer, C., 1979, Ethnoarchaeology: Implications of Ethnography for Archaeology, Columbia University Press, New York.

- Matthews, R., Matthews, W. and Mohammadifar, Y., 2013, The Earliest Neolithic of Iran:2008 Excavations at Tappeh Sheikh-e Abad and Tappeh Jani: Central Zagros Archaeological Project, Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK.

- Matthews, W., Mohammadifar, Y., Motarjem, A., Ilkhani, H., Shillito, L.M. and Matthews, R., 2013, Issues in the Study of Paleoclimate and Paleoenvironment in the Early Holocene of the Central Zagros, Iran, International Journal of Archaeology 1(2):26-33.

- Mc Donald, M.M.A., 1979, An examination of mid-Holocene settlement patterns in the Central Zagros region of western Iran, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto.

- Molleson, T., 1994, The Eloquent Bones of Abu Hureyra, Scientific American August: 70-75.

- Moore, A.M.T., 1985, The Development of Neolithic Societies in the Levant, in: A. Close (ed.), Advances in Archaeology 4, Academic Press, New York: 1-69.

- Mortensen, P., 2014, Excavations at Tepe Guran: the Neolithic Period, Acta Iranica 55, Peeters.

- Mortensen, P. and Smith, P.E.L., 1977, A Survey of Prehistoric Sites in the Harsin Region, 1977, in: F. Bagherzadeh (ed.), Proceedings of the VIth Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, Tehran: 1-23 (unpublished).

- Mortensen, P. and Smith, P.E.L., 1977, A Survey of Prehistoric Sites in the Harsin Region, 1977, Modares Archaeological Research 10&11:1-10.

- Piperno, D. R., Weiss, E., Holst, I. and Nadel, D., 2004, Processing of Wild Cereal Grains in the Upper Palaeolithic Revealed by Starch Grain Analysis, Nature 430: 670-72.

- Pullar, J., 1990, Tepe Abdul Hosein, A Neolithic Site in Western Iran, Excavations 1978, BAR International Series 563, Oxford.

- Renfrew, C., 2006, Inception of Agriculture and Rearing in the Middle East, Human Paleontology and Prehistory 5:395-404.

- Riehl, S., Benz, M., Conard, N., Darabi, H., Deckers, K., Nashli, H., and Zeidi- Kulehparcheh, M., 2012, Plant use in three Pre-Pottery Neolithic Sites of the Northern and Eastern Fertile Crescent: a Preliminary Report, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 21(2):95-106.

- Riehl, S., Asouti, E., Karakaya, D., Starkovich, B. M., Zeidi, M. and Conard, N. J., 2015, Resilience at the Transition to Agriculture:The Long-Term Landscape and Resource development at the Aceramic Neolithic Tell Site of Chogha Golan (Iran), BioMed Research International 2015:1-23.

- Riehl, S., Zeidi, M. and Conard, N., 2013, Emergence of Agriculture in the Foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran, Science 341:65-7.

- Rowan, Y. M. and Ebeling, J. R., 2008, Introduction: Potential of Ground Stone Studies, in: Y. M. Rowan and J. R. Ebeling (eds.), New Approaches to Old Stones, Recent Studies of Ground Stone Artifacts, Equinox Publishing Ltd, London: 1-15.

- Simmons, A. H., 2007, The Neolithic Revolution in the Near East: Transforming the Human Landscape, The University of Arizona Press.

- Smith, P.E.L., 1976, Reflection on Four Seasons of Excavations at Tappeh Ganj Dareh, in F. Bagherzadeh (ed.), Proceeding of the 4th Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran, Tehran: 11-22.

- Snyder, A. J., Wasylik, K., Fritz, C. W. and Wright, E. H. Jr., 2001, Diatom Based Conductivity Reconstruction and Paleoclimatic Interpretation of a 40-Ka Record from Lake Zeribar, Iran, The Holocene 11(6): 737–745.

- Stevens, L. R., Wright Jr. H. E. and Ito, E., 2001, Proposed Changes in Seasonality of Climate during the late Glacial and Holocene at Lake Zeribar, Iran, The Holocene 11(6): 747-755.

- Vahdati Nasab H., Jayez M., Qorbani H. R., Darabi H. and Taylor H., 2013, Preliminary Techno-Typological Analysis of Chipped Stone Materials from Sheikh-e Abad, in: Matthews, R., Matthews, W., Mohammadifar, Y. (eds.), The Earliest Neolithic of Iran:2008 Excavations at Sheikh-E Abad and Jani, Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK:117-129.

- Van Zeist, W. and Bottema, S., 1977, Palynological investigations in western Iran, Palaeohistoria 19: 19–85.

- Van Zeist, W. and Wright Jr, H.E., 1963, Preliminary Pollen Studies at Lake Zeribar, Zagros Mountain, Southwestern Iran, Science 140:65-7.

- Wasylikowa K., Witkowski A., Walanus A., Hutorowicz A., Alexandrowicz S. W. and Langer J. J., 2006, Palaeolimnology of Lake Zeribar, Iran, and its Climatic Implications, Quaternary Research 66: 477–493.

- Watson, P. J., 1979, Archaeological Ethnography in Western Iran, Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology no 57, Tucson, University of Arizona Press.

- Wright, Jr, H.E., 1968, Natural Environment of Early Food Production North of Mesopotamia, Science 161: 334-9.

- Wright, K.I., 1991, The Origins and Development of Ground Stone Assemblages in late Pleistocene Southwest Asia, Paléorient 17:19–45.

- Wright, K.I., 1992, A Classification System for Ground Stone Tools from the Prehistoric Levant, Paléorient 18:53–81.

- Wright, K.I., 1994, Ground Stone Tools and Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence in Southwest Asia: Implications for the Transition to Farming, American Antiquity 59 (2): 238-263.

- Wright, K.I., 2000, The Social Origins of Cooking and Dining in Early Villages of Western Asia, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 66:89–121.

- Wright, K.I., 2008, Craft Production and the Organization of Ground StoneTechnologies, in: Y. M. Rowan and J. R. Ebeling (eds.), New Approaches to Old Stones, Recent Studies of Ground Stone Artifacts, Equinox Publishing Ltd, London: 130-143.

- Wright, K.I., 2014, Domestication and Inequality? Households, Corporate Groups and Food Processing Tools at Neolithic Çatalhöyük, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 33: 1-33.