عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
In the process of formation and growth of urban areas, the role and function of various mausoleums and shrines, such as the tombs of saints and prominent religious leaders must be considered. The existence of a pilgrimage complex in the city attracted believers, pilgrims and travelers who visited and stayed in the city and as a result, the population of the city increased and business boomed. Some of the devotees and believers of these figures constructed public-utility urban-cultural facilities surrounding these complexes in order to enhance the prosperity, glory and reputation of these spiritual areas. During the Islamic period, as a result of the spiritual and mystical influence of Sheikh Ahmad-e Jami in the Seljuk era and in Ma’dabad village- as the initial center of formation of Torbat-e Jam- the kings of this period, such as Sultan Sanjar, and rulers and elders went to visit him in the village and after his death and burial in this village, the context was provided for devotion to the mystical character of Sheikh. The Sheikh’s family’s kinship with and religious influence on kings and leaders in the subsequent periods, especially the Kurt dynasty rulers during the Ilkhanid period and Timurid kings, led to further prosperity of Torbat-e Jam, and this factor contributed to the formation and development of the mausoleum complex surrounding the tomb of Sheikh Jami. On the other hand, because of its special geographical position and favorable environmental conditions, this city was located in the middle of transporting routes connecting major cities of greater Khorasan. Also, it was located between Herat and Nishapur and on the other hand, it had common borders with Sarakhs, Tus, and Badghis region. Therefore, militarily, economically and culturally, it was always considered as one of the very important areas. With these changes, the city of Buzjan in the Jam province, which until then was one of the major cities of the early Islamic centuries, fell from the boom times as a result of factors such as the Mongol invasion and Torbat-e Jam became the headquarters of the government. The process of physical-spatial development of Sheikh-e Jam complex and consequently, Torbat-e Jam began since the rule of the Kurt dynasty and gradually a major city emerged out of a small village, and especially since the Ilkhanid until the Late Timurid period, in the light of its political and religious role, this city progressed rapidly in all economic, political, communicative and cultural areas. In the present study, the causes of changes in the physical and formal changes of pattern of Torbat-e Jam city since its establishment, with regard to both external factors (government and the will of political-administrative elites of the city) and internal factors (growth of economic, social and religious relations) until the Late Pahlavi period is evaluated. The research method is descriptive-analytical and historical analysis method in the form of documentary and library research based on studying the written sources, especially historical and geographical texts and adaptation of aerial photographs to available maps and field research in the context of the ancient city. Accordingly, based on the most important factors affecting the process of development of Jam city, that is, the presence of Sheikh Ahmad-e Jam in Ma’dabad village, natural and climatic condition of the region and the transportation/communication routes connecting this city and neighboring regions and cities, initial center of the city and its limits over different historical periods were determined based on the existing documents, and it was found that the city of Jam reached the peak of its development and prosperity by the Timurid and Pahlavi periods.