عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The Scythian exploits in Western Asia, as described in ancient written sources, have been referred to by many authors, who dealt with them mainly in the margin of their larger works. It should be emphasized that the Scythians did not form a single people. Under this name a variety of nomad tribes of the Eurasiatic steppes are included who were linked by a similar way of life, a more or less common culture and sometimes also a common origin. Invention of the Scythian nomad tribes altered many political statements of Mesopotamia, east Anadolu and northwestern of Iran in one millennium BC. As long as the Hrodotus reports appeared as to the Scythian invention and domination on western Asia, the studies regarding Scythians gained a new form in all parts at the western Asia. Despite, Herodotus has closely explained all features of this invation and even he has delineated their accession ways from the south Sebria to the north Caucasia and western Asia, nevertheless always due to abcense of Archaeological data have been seen to these reports with incertitude regard. According to Herodotus, Scythian domination ended with their defeat by the Medes, who thrust them out of Asia back into Europe; this struggle may have taken place shortly before the war of the Medes against the Lydians [IV.78] which began cir. 590 B.C and ended at the solar eclipse of 585 B. C. If we trust Herodotus, (and new discoveries and investigations have always confirmed his reliability, as pointed out by several scholars), by the middle of the VIIth c. B. C. the Scythians had become a great power in Western Asia and ruled it for 28 years. Northwestern of Iran had a special role in this conflicts and must be remained data for these tribes in the zone, but Archaeological studies has not showed such presence in this area. A great hoard of gold and silver objects was found there in 1946. This treasure included purely "Scythian" art, purely Assyrian jewelry, objects like the pectoral combining Assyrian and "Scythian" elements, and objects of local style. Besides the golden pectoral, it embraced covering plaques with a decoration in the form of ibexes and galloping stags, golden fibulae, a silver dish, etc. A few two and three-edged bronze arrow-heads and tonged bone arrow-points also formed part of this hoard. Archaeological remains usually looked upon as connected with the Scythian exploits have been found in several parts of Western Asia. First of all are the small, socketed, bronze (seldom iron) arrow-heads of two varieties: the three-edged and the solid pyramidal, triangular in cross-section; many of these two varieties are provided with a barb. Arrow-heads of these types have been found in thousands within the limits of ancient Scythia in Europe and in Asia, and also in Central Europe. They were also found within the ancient Mediterranean Greek world where they are frequently called the "Graeco - Scythian" type. There is discussion as to Ziwiye treasure As yet and its problems have not solved and it seems that it be indissoluble with the inoperative data as to its objects. Recently, an excavatin was done in the Khoram Abad cemetery in Meshgin Shahr and for first time were found interesting and convincer objects for Scythians that they demonstrate theire presence in the northwestern of Iran. In this paper it mentioned to the excavation and its main data and with regard to other objects from western Asia, northwestern of Iran and Caucasia area as to the Scythians, we assembled study outlines of these objects. The study is marker irrefragable semblance between the objects of this site with the data of other Scythian sites over world specialy in the north of Caucasia.