عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Analyzing Settlement patterns of Archaeological sites is one the most important methods recognizing the cultural changes and environment over times. Examining and identifying plains, valleys and different areas by such an approach have certainly result that can introduce comprehensive and detailed information which how to presence and distribution of different societies settlement. Plains of different pediments of Alvand Mountain is high plain between mountains of Touyserkan, including cultural areas of east central Zagros which always been considered by human communities and have high potential for locating habitats and different community settlement. In winter 2012 a research project of examining, identifying, supplementary documentary and recording antiquities of Touyserkan was conducted as survey by gathering cultural material from the areas level randomly aiming to identify and recording the ancient sites and monuments of Touyserkan. The review process included 44 sites from Chalcolithic to the Late Islamic periods and given identified surface works, 25 sites have historical works indicating meaning full setting and settlements expansion in western range of Alvand in Parthian period. Parthian period work is studied by Clinky Ware and mudbrick architecture specific to the period. this research is trying to recognize the effective factors on forming and interacting areas and settlement of Parthian period. Also, present research answers to the question which what effect has landscape on forming Parthian settlements of western piedmonts of Alvand Mountain? Answering given question, hypothesis such as existence of rich pastures and suitable agriculture land and water sources in Touyserkan plain were important cross including ancient road of Hegmataneh / Ecbatana to Susa and southern regions of Iran known as kinds road through Ganjnameh valley and Touyserkan and control and supervision on it in reasons of forming Parthian settlements in Touyserkan plain have found ability to the region.Also, with the aim of examining and analyzing landscape effect in dispersion and distribution of settlement patterns, estimating the hierarchy of the central in cores and spatial relation of areas in western foot of Alvand Mountain in Parthian period has beneficial from spatial analysis method in GIS environment. The rise and fall of Parthian settlements of Touyserkan plain is discussed from two perspectives: first, soil is suitable for agriculture that is only favorable in parts of central north of the plain and parts of south of the plain which is effective on the growth and expansion of settlements, so that, we have faced with highest growth rate of settlements expansion in west, center and south west of the plain, which has been most suitable plain in terms of environmental factors. Second, it was roads including supervision, security supply and accessibility case and habitats relations with each other and has signification effect forming and expansion of sites, so that, more settlements are formed along communicating roads Line. This reads of Touyserkan plain is one of the main roads to Ecbatana city by GIS statistical analysis, most density of areas is seen in roads leading to Hamadan (Ecbatana), Nahavand (Laodicea) and Malayer (Nooshijan) which often. Have extent under half a hectare. This type of settlement distribution can be related to supervising the roads, wariness and prevention from possible movement of armed attacks, need to important in restructures such as: military bases along the way, suitable access roads and importantly. The Security of the region, therefore, presence of Environmental site (site with under half a hectare in size foots depending on roads) has been considered important and serious in supplying survival of the governance and important cities (Ecbatana and Laodicea) which location of habitats and settlements of Parthian period of Touyserkan plain has fallowed from such factors and environmental behaviors.