خوانِش توتمی نقوش جانوری تمدن حوزه هلیل‌رود جیرفت (هزاره سوم ق.م)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه جیرفت

10.22084/nbsh.2019.15140.1671

چکیده

بر روی ظروف به‌دست آمده از تمدن حوضه‌ی هلیل‌رود، نقوش مختلف: انسانی، گیاهی، جانوری و هندسی نقش شده است. در میان آن‌ها، نقوش جانوری از نظر فراوانی، خلاقیت انسانی، هنری و آیینی، ممتاز هستند. هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر خوانش نقوش جانوری تمدن حوضه‌ی هلیل‌رود جیرفت با تکیه بر اشیاء کشف شده و به‌دست آمده از این تمدن در پرتو نظریه‌ی توتم‌پرستی است؛ بنابراین پرسش اصلی پژوهش این است: نقوش جانوری تمدن حوضه‌ی هلیل‌رود جیرفت چه معانی را بازتاب می‌دهند؟ با مطالعه‌ی مقدماتی نقوش این فرضیه مطرح شد که خوانش توتمی نقوش جانوری حوزه‌ی فرهنگی هلیل‌رود فهم تازه‌ای برای مخاطب ایجاد می‌کند و احتمالاً کنشگران انسانی حوزه‌ی فرهنگی هلیل‌رود برای نقش نمودن جانوران بر اشیاء نگاهی حاکی از احترام، تقدس، تابو و ترس داشتند. پژوهش پیشِ‌رو مطالعه‌ی میان رشته‌ای است و حوزه‌ی تاریخ، باستان‌شناسی و روان‌شناسی را دربر می‌گیرد. داده‌های پژوهش با مطالعه‌ی میدانی و کتابخانه‌ای نگارنده فراهم گردید و در چارچوب نظریه‌ی توتم‌پرستی به موضوع پرداخته شده است. جامعه‌ی آماری متشکل از 171 ظرف، 122 ظرف آن در کتاب جیرفت، کهن‌ترین تمدن شرق، و 49 ظرف آن در گنجینه‌ی آثار جیرفت، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در مجموع، 213 نقش شمارش شد و براساس آن‌ها تقسیم‌بندی و خوانش نقوش انجام گرفت. یافته‌های پژوهش حاکی از آن است که نقوش جانوری با 88/47 درصد از کل نقوش، فراوان‌ترین نقوش تمدن حوضه‌ی هلیل‌رود هستند و در رده‌ی بعدی نقوش هندسی با 65/20 درصد و نقوش گیاهی با 67/12 درصد، قرار دارند. نقوش انسان-جانوران نیز که بر 15 ظرف نقش‌بسته است، 73/11 درصد نقوش را تشکیل می‌دهند. نقوش جانوری دارای جنبه‌ی آیینی و دینی هستند و به احتمال زیاد انسان متمدن ساکن حوضه‌ی هلیل‌رود در نقش این جانوران و نیز نقش انسان-جانوران بر ظروف، نگاهی حاکی از احترام و تقدس داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Totemic Study of Zoomorphic Motifs in the Civilization of the Halirood District of Jiroft (Third Millennium B.C.)

نویسنده [English]

  • Reza Sehhat Manesh
Department of Archaeology, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoshtar
چکیده [English]

On the dishes obtianed from the civilization of the Halirood basin, were engraved various humans, plants, animals and geometric designs. Among them, animal schemes are prominent in terms of abundance, human creativity, artistic and ritual status. Accordingly, the main purpose of the article is the study and introduce animalistic motifs of civilization in the Halilrood, Jiroft, based on the objects which discovered and obtained from this civilization in light of the theory of Totem, and seeks to response the question: What are meanings the animalistic motifs of the Halilrood (Jiroft) civilization? A totemic study of animalistic motifs in the Halilrood basin creates a new understanding for the audience, and human actors in the Halilrood basin could have approaches from respect for holiness, taboo and fear for the carve of animals on objects. This research covering the field of history, archeology and psychology. Accordingly, the research data was provided with field research and library tools and based on the totemic theory deal with a combination of descriptive-analytical method. The statistical society consisted of 171 vases, 122 vases in Jiroft, “Jiroft; the oldest civilization of the east” (Majidzadeh, 2002), and 49 vases in the “Objects from the Jiroft treasury” (Piran, 2013). As total, 213 items were counted and divisions and study of the motifs also were done. The findings of the research indicate that animal motifs with 47.88% of the total number of motifs constitute the most abundant patterns in the Helilrood basin civilization, and in the next category geometric motifs with 20.65% and plant motifs with 12.67% were placed. Man-made patterns - animals that inserted in 15 dishes make up 11.73% percent of the motifs. Animal motifs fill with religious and religious nature, and it is likely that the civilized human being living in the Halilrood basin in the Carve of these animals, as well as the carve of humans on the dishes, has a look of respect and sanctity.
Keywords; Jiroft, Civilization, Halilrood, Totemism, Zoomorphic motifs.
 
Introduction
the relics which derived from the Halilrood civilization belonged to the first half of the 3rd millennium BC. They are important in terms of economic, cultural and artistic aspects. On the dishes were engraved various humans, plants, animals and geometric designs. Among them, animal schemes are prominent in terms of abundance, human creativity, artistic and ritual status. Their elegance and artistic value are so high that they represent the new style well known the Halilrood culture (Majidzadeh, 2008: 15).The Halilrood style is an artistic and real expression of the cultural and social life of  Halilrood region. Man had long ties with nature and inspired of nature to express his aspirations. Nature was the pattern of human rituals, beliefs and practices. Hence, the engraved objects which derived from the civilization of Halilrood can be an interpreter of the natural, social and cultural life in this area. Accordingly, the motifs of animals constitute pivotal problems in the study.
 
Question
 In the research on the civilization of Halilrood basin, motifs from different aspects have been considered, but their other rituals and totemic practices have been neglected. Hence, in the present article, the animal motifs of the Halilrood civilization have examined with the religious, social and totemic attitudes. The main purpose of the article is to study and introduce animalistic motifs of civilization in the Halilrood, based on the objects which discovered from this civilization in light of the theory of Totem, and seeks to response the question: What are meanings the animalistic motifs of Halilrood (Jiroft) civilization?                                                                                               
 
Research Hypothesis
A totemic study of animalistic motifs in Halilrood basin bring up a new understanding for the audience, and human being, probably, in the Halilrood basin could have approaches from respect for holiness, taboo and fear for the carve of animals on the objects.
 
Research Methodology
This research is an interdisciplinary study, covering the fields of history, archeology and psychology. The statistical society consisted of 171 vases, 122 vases in Jiroft, “Jiroft; the oldest civilization of the east” (Majidzadeh, 2002), and 49 vases in the “Objects from the Jiroft treasury” (Piran, 2013). As total, 213 items were counted and divisions and study of the motifs also were done.
Discussion
According to the author’s study, the statistical population was surveyed with 213 frequency on 171 dishes. In this study, it was determined that 102 animal schemes, 27 plant schemes, 8 simple schemes, 44 geometric schemes, 13 architectural schemes and 19 schemes of humans on the dishes of  Hellerrood civilization have been designed (Majidzadeh, 2003, Piran, 1392).
One of the animal designs that is seen on the objects of the Halilrood region is the schemes of the cattle. It is observed in the Halilrood basin that peoples of the region by carving of human and cattle in one motif had greatest respect for the cattle. In one of the motifs human is placed on the knees and below the cattle and even part of his face is in contact with one of the cattle.
From the other animals that are imprinted on the objects in Halilrood basin are schemes of goats. The features of the carved goats in Halilrood basin is their horn, the goats have strong horns, and this can reflect the importance of horn motifs for human.
The schemes of snake in Jiroft’s art is seen in many different forms. By examining Jiroft soap stones, Snake can be considered as the most important artistic pattern of this civilization (Taheri, 1396: 254). Owing to fear, human being had the greatest respect for snake.
In the archeology museum of Jiroft, schemes of the Eagle and Snake, which designed alone or craved with an animal- usually snake. The actors reflect concept the triumph of eagle over snake. The mentioned struggle between eagle and snake originated from Sumerian rituals and the repetition of eagle schemes in the stone and bronze dishes of Halilrood basin illustrates the importance and sanctity of eagle as a symbol of heaven in their belief in these people (Agha Abbasi, 1389: 198, 202).
 
Conclusion
The findings of the research indicate that animal motifs with 47.88% of the total number of designs constitute the most abundant patterns in Helilrood basin civilization, and among the category of animal motifs, snake with 33.59% and thereafter scorpion with 18.75%, cow with 14.06%, leopard with 14.06%, eagle with 10.93% , Goats and rams (8.59%) and Lion (7.18%) were placed respectively. Design of mankind have applied with animals. Accompanying of mankind with animals indicate a type of respect, sanctity and fear. As for the relation between human and animals in these objects can represent a totemic study about them. In the transaction between human and animals, especially relations between human and cow and human and goat, cow regarded as a useful animal.   Goat is respected for their horns as a strong beast. Moreover, the relation between snake and human as well as snake and other animals there is a type of fear and taboo. This relations also follow between snake and eagle, it seems the latter as a celestial animal take over snake as a terrestrial animal.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Jiroft
  • Civilization
  • Halilrood
  • Totemism
  • Zoomorphic motifs

- Abbasi, Ali (2013). Iconography of the motifs of the artistic vessels of Jiroft and their classification; in: proceedings of the second international conference on the archaeology of the Halil Rud basin. Edited by Yousef Majidzadeh and Mohammadreza Miri. Tehran: Matn Honar AC Publisher.

- Aghaabbasi, Zahra (2010). The new found motifs of Halil River’s domain Kerman: University of Shahid Bahonar.

- Ascalone, Enrico (2008). Jiroft civilization in Susa; in: proceedings of the second international conference on the archaeology of the Halilrood basin. Edited by Yousef Majidzadeh. Kerman: Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Kerman.

- Azadegan, Jamshid (1993). Elementary religions, Investigating Totemism. Tehran: Miras Malal.

- Basafa, Hassan, Mohammad Hossein Rezaei (2014).  A Comparative Study of Chlorite Vessels Iconography, Discovered from Halilrood Basin. Sociology and Anthropology 2(5). 196-200.  

- Bastide, Roger. (1991/1370SH). Dānesh-e Asātir (La Mythologie). Translated. By Jalāl Sattāri. 1st ed. Tehrān: Toos.

- Delachaux, M. Loefer (1985). Le symbolism des legends. Translated by Jalal Sattari. Tehran: Toos.

- Durant, Williams James (1993A). The Story of Civilization. Translated by Ahmad Aram, A. Pashaei, Amirhossein Aryanpoor.  Vol 1. OUR ORIENTAL HERITAGE. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi.

- Durant, Williams James (1993B). The Story of Civilization. Translated by Amirhossein Aryanpoor, Fathollah Mojtabaei, Hooshang Pirnazar. Vol 2 THE LIFE OF GREECE. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi.

- Eliade, Mircea (1983). Aspects du mythe. Translated Jalal Sattari. Tehran: Toos.

- Durant, Williams James (2010). Traite dhistoire des religions. Translated Jalal Sattari. Tehran: Soroosh.

- Eslami, Hasan (2006). Sociology’s Attitude to Religion with Emphasis on Durkheim’s Theory. Pazhoohesh va Hoozeh. N 26. 78-116.