عنوان مقاله [English]
New conducted archaeological excavations in the cultural area of Black Sea and South Caucasus indicate accumulation of Achaemenid artistic data and the effects of Persian style in architecture that include palaces, columned halls and room, gates, and rock cut tombs. Achaemenid traces and the traces which related to the new art families in the cultural area of Black Sea were taken from different regions such as Anatolia, Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. At Satrapi of Thrace, Borysa and Doriskos along with a royal residence were built. In Pontus and Oluz Höyük, Achaemenid palaces with column base were made; in Qaracamirli, Azerbaijan, east and central Georgia, historical monuments similar to Achaemenid cases and rockcut tombs affected by Achaemenid architecture have identified in Anatolia. We see a sort of unity in construction and decoration in the obtained works of cultural area of Black Sea that, due to the volume of Achaemenid architecture works, the need for a comprehensive, scientific, and objective research will pose in this regard. The questions raised in this study are: 1- How does the Achaemenid art and architecture affect the architecture of the Black Sea and the South Caucasus in the Achaemenid era? 2- How to form the art style “Ionic - Achaemenid” on the architectural monuments of the cultural zone of the Black Sea and the South Caucasus in the Achaemenid era? Are. The results of this research show that following the Achaemenid court style, the Achaemenid architecture has been harmonized in the field of study. Also, in the western part of Anatolia, after the formation of a new artistic style called Ionian-Achaemenid, it has had a direct impact on the architecture of this period in the field of study. This study has been fundamental. By descriptive-analysis method and documentation of data based on quantitative methods and analyzing data, Achaemenid architecture analysis will be discussed in the field of study.
Keywords: Cultural area of the Black Sea, South Caucasus (Transcaucasia), Achaemenid Architecture.
The great Cyrus after the conquest of Lydia and the observation of the magnificent religious buildings and the highly developed architecture of those lands, the thought of creating an appropriate capital came to his mind and a group of Ionic and Lydian stonemasons were brought to the Persia. The footprints of these architects can be seen in Pasargad, which include elements such as platforms, columns and clamps used for fastening the stone blocks. Because the Achaemenid architecture has a certain harmony and proportion and also the most important building of this art period is the majestic palaces of the Achaemenid kings, it could be considered as an art index of this era. This artistic index is recognizable in the Achaemenid dominated lands, which can be cited as an indication of the construction of the Achaemenid nobility or the influence of Achaemenid architecture. Also, in the central part of the Black Sea coastal regions, archeological finds belonging directly to the Achaemenids or they say the Achaemenid influence on them (Dönmez, 2007: 108). The discovered traces which belong to pre-historic, beginning historic and historic era in the cultural region of Black Sea show the importance of this cultural region in different ages. With Cyrus conquest of Lydia and the conquest by Darius I (514 Bc) and his war with Scythians of south Danube and the occupation of Thrace region a new era of culture and art began.
Objectives and Necessity of Research
The purpose of this research is to identify the presence of Achaemenids in the South Caucasus and the Black Sea cultural area. Considerable volume of Achaemenid architecture works in the field of study and identify a kind of unity in the construction and decorating of these works the need for comprehensive, scientific and targeted research.
Research Question: Questions raised in this study are: 1-How does the Achaemenid art and architecture affect the architecture of the Black Sea and the South Caucasus in the Achaemenid era? 2- How does the formation of the Ionian-Achaemenid artistic style on the architectural monuments of the Black Sea region and the South Caucasus in the Achaemenid era?
Research Method: The issue of this research is how the Achaemenid architecture is synonymous with the cultural zone of the Black Sea and the South Caucasus. This study has been fundamental. By descriptive-analysis method and documentation of data based on quantitative methods and analyzing data, Achaemenid architecture analysis will be discussed in the field of study.
Architectural works identified in the South Caucasus is include rock cut tombs, palaces, columned halls, gates and temples.
Based on the investigation carried out in the study area, four rocky tombs were identified: in Paphlagonia in Donalar, Salarkoy, Terelik and Afırözü. The tomb plan is a combination of Ionian and Achaemenid and local elements, but independent of the progress of other places in Anatolia. Rock-cut tombs display Achaemenid symbols in Paphlagonia and also shows the continuation of that in Hellenic Paphlagonia.
Based on the investigation carried out in the study area, Five palaces included Sari-Tepe palace, Gumbati Palace, a historiacal building complex in Benjamin, Qarajamirli (Ghorban Tepe) palace and Oluz Höyük palace were identified. The plans of these palaces as well as small findings represent the remains of Achaemenid culture.
Based on the investigation carried out in the study area Two columned halls included Argishti-Hinili and Erebuni columned halls were identified. These columned halls and pottery found at these places, which closely follow the forms of Achaemenid pottery, show close links with the Achaemenid centers.
Based on the investigation carried out in the study area, One propyleion was identified in Qarajamirli.
In this place, the column base, which is a typical piece of the Achaemenid architectural decoration and examples of that known in Susa and Persepolis. Also the large clay brick building, that plan and its dimensions are close to similar buildings in Pasargad and Susa.
Five temples included samadlo ritual tower and the temples of Zikhiagora, Sairkhe temple, Zela temple and Oluz Höyük temple were identified. Found Items are similar to Achaemenid architecture.
Although the Achaemenid architecture has always been influenced by the other tribes architecture of the specific regions in its realm, but if we call that imitation, then this imitation has not been passive act, and it could be said that the architecture of Iran during the Achaemenid was an eclectic kind of art. Some scholars named that court style or royal style.
Now based on so far archeological founds associated with the Achaemenid territory around the Black Sea, Caucasus and the South Caucasus, new sort of art forms in this area. And this new art is a combination of the native art of the conquered regions and the main Achaemenian centers of the time. New archaeological excavations in this cultural region represent the accumulation of Achaemenid culture material and Persian influences in the architecture.
The art of Satrapi, due to the influence of the Achaemenid art of the court as well as the additions and omissions, created a new kind of style that could be called artistic style of “Ionic-Achaemenid” work. This new style is believed to have been emerged in the western part of Anatolia and Cyprus and then have extended to the entire Achaemenid Empire.
- Babaev, I., Gagoshidze, I. & Florian S. K., 2007, “An Achaemenid «Palace» at Qarajamirli (Azerbaijan) Preliminary Report on the Excavations in 2006”. Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 13, Issue 1, pp. 31-45.
- Babaev, I., Gagoshidze, I. & Florian S. K., 2009, “Excavations in the Achaemenid Palatial Complex near the Village Karacamirli in the Shamkir Region, Azerbaijan - Land between East and West. Transfer of knowledge and technology during the “First Globalization”of the VIIth - IVth millennium B.C.”. International Symposium Baku, April 1-3, pp.88-91.
- Beikzadeh, S. & Iravani Ghadim, F., 2017, “Achaemenid Architecture in South Caucasus and the Black Sea Cultural Basin”. TÜBA-AR 20: Türkish Academy of Sciences Journal of Archaeology. Volume: 20, Pp.129-146.
- Dönmez, Ş., 2007, “The Achaemenid Impact On the Central Black Sea Region”. The Achaemenid Impact on Local Populations and Cultures in Anatolia, pp. 107- 116.
- Dönmez, Ş., 2011, “Oluz Höyük kazısı Dördüncü Dönem (2010) Çalışmaları: Değerlendirmeler ve Sonuçlar”. Colloqium Anatolicu Anadolu Sohbetleri X pp. 103-128
- Dönmez, Ş, 2012a, “Oluz Höyük, Karadeniz Persler”. Aktüel Arkeolojisi 25, İstanbul pp.104-145
- Dönmez, Ş., 2012b, “Oluz Höyük kazısı 2011-2012 Dönemleri Çalışmaları”. Önasya Arkeolojisi Bülteni 4, sonbahar/kış 2012, Istanbul.
- Dönmez, Ş., 2018, “Oluz Höyük Ateşgedesi Ve Erken Zerdüşt Dini Kutsal Alanı”, TÜBA-AR 22, Ankara pp 145-160.
- Draycott, C. M., 2015, “Unicorn’s horn or guideline? On the meaning of an unusual diagonal line in an unfinished relief of a bovine on the Kalekapı tomb at Donalar, Paphlagonia”. The Art of Making in Antiquity. Stone working in the Roman World, King’s College, London, pp.1-20.