بنای ساسانی روئه بر کرانه‌های سیمره

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشکده ی باستان شناسی، پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری

10.22084/nbsh.2019.15870.1721

چکیده

ویژگی‌های طبیعی و زیست‌بومی رود سیمره بر روند شکل‌گیری و تطور استقرارهای انسانی در طول تاریخ تأثیری انکارناپذیر داشته است. در طول یک دهه‌ی گذشته‌ی پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی در حوضه‌ی آبگیر سیمره، یافته‌های بسیار و مدارک ارزشمند برای بررسی‌های تحلیلی در حوزه‌های گوناگون سفال، معماری و دست‌ساخته‌های متنوع فرهنگی به‌دست آمده است. در نتیجه‌ی یکی از بررسی‌های روشمند باستان‌شناختی در محدوده‌ای موسوم به «تنگه کافری» در حاشیه‌ی رود روئه، بخش‌هایی از عناصر ساختاری بنایی بر بستر صخره‌‌ای کوه‌مله‌روته بر تراسی از دوران سوم زمین‌شناسی و در شیب تند مشرف به رودخانه‌ی روئه آشکار شد. مجموعه‌ی شواهد موجود و ارزیابی‌های مبتنی‌بر بررسی اولیه مدارک سفالی، مستندنگاری آثار ساختمانی و مشاهده و درک بارزه‌های محیطی ضرورت شناخت را در روند  طرح مسائلی چون تاریخ‌­گذاری و اهمیت و نقش معماری شناخته شده در بستر و بافتار فرهنگی خاص آن و نسبت‌­اش با اقلیم و جغرافیای منطقه که از اهداف این پژوهش بود؛ بنابراین  بر این اساس  در پی آنیم که گذشته از ارزیابی کارکرد و قدمت نویافته‌­های ساختمانی به پرسش­‌هایی چون: چرایی جایگاه این بنا در چشم‌انداز محوطه­‌های هم‌دوره در حوزه‌ی فرهنگی سیمره؛ چگونگی ماهیت بنا از نظر کاربری معماری آن در ارتباط با سایر بناهای هم‌دوره در منطقه؟ چگونگی کیفیت بنا و ارتباط بالقوه‌ی آن با سایر محوطه‌های هم زمان در منطقه؟ بپردازیم که کاوشی هدفمند را در پی‌آورد. نتایج اولیه مؤید انطباق ساختارهای معمارانه بر طرحی نظام‌مند، نقشه‌ای دقیق و سبکی شناخته شده از دوره‌ی ساسانی و دلالت‌های برآمده از وارسی مدارک سفالی در تأیید این تاریخ‌گذاری است. از طرفی، موقعیت جغرافیایی و موضع راهبردی محدوده و ناحیه‌ی کندو‌کاوها، حاکی از رویارویی با یکی از مسیرهای مهم ارتباطی میان‌رودان و عیلام باستان و نقش حیاتی این تنگه در راهیابی از حاشیه‌ی رود سیمره به دره‌شهر و سپس به لرستان است. از همین‌رو استنباط انگیزه‌های ارتباطی، مبادلاتی و جابه‌جایی‌های اجتماعی برای برپایی این ساختارهای بین راهی دور از ذهن نیست؛ ضمن این‌که عواملی چون: پیچیدگی نقشه، تنوع فضا، کیفیت مصالح و گستره‌ی احتمالی ساخت‌و‌سازها وجود حاکم‌نشینی محلی در لوای حکومت ساسانی را ممکن و بایستگی‌های ناظر بر تداوم کاوش‌ها را بی‌تردید می‌سازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rouha, Sassanian Building in the Seymareh Coast

نویسنده [English]

  • lily niakan
Iranian Centre for Archaeological Research (ICAR)
چکیده [English]

Throughout history, nature and ecosystem characteristics of the river Seymareh have had an irrefutable effect on the formation and development process of human settlements. Archeological studies in the Seymareh basin have been discovered over the past decade, and obtained valuable evidence for analytical researches in various areas of pottery, architecture and various handicrafts. As a result of one of the archaeological methodological studies in a domain so-called Tange Kaffari on the margin of the river Rouha, parts of the structural elements on the rocky bed of the Mela Ruteh Mountains were revealed on a terrace from the third era of geology and on a steep slope toward the river Rouha. Existing sets of evidences and evaluations based on a preliminary review of pottery documents, documentation of building works, and the observation and understanding of environmental obvious things lead to purposeful exploration. The preliminary results confirm the compliance of architectural structures with the systematic design, the precise paints and a well-known style of the Sasanian period, and the implications of the examination of pottery documents are in confirmation of this date. On the other hand, the geographic and strategic position of the area and the drilled and investigated area indicating a confrontation to one of the important communication routes between the ancient Mesopotamia and the Ilam, and the vital role of the Strait in the passage from the border of the Seymareh to Darehshahr and then to Lorestan. Hence, it is not far from the mind, deduction of communication motives, exchanges and social movements to establish these structures. Factors such as the complexity of the map, the diversity of space, the quality of materials, and the possible scope of construction, while, make it possible for local rule under the rule of Sassanid empire, and it is no doubt on necessity monitors on continuity of exploration.
Keywords: Ilam, Seymareh, Tangeh Kafri, Rouha, Sassanid.
 
Introduction and Method
A part of this catchment area, Tangeh kafari is one of the most suitable areas for archaeological research, and identification of Species, stages, and human exploitation from an immutable natural setting, especially during ancient and historical periods. In the 2016, general surveys and local sampling in the area under discussion attracted the expedition’s attention to the relationship between pottery findings and the remains of concentrated architecture. Such evidence, along with structural constitutions and relationships initiated the historical cohesive studies and analytical archaeological research in the Seymareh Cultural Region, leading to reviews include:
 - Explaining the position of this building in the perspective of the same period sites in the Seymareh Cultural Region.
- The nature of the building in terms of its architectural relevance in relation to other monuments of the same period in the region
- The quality of the building and its potential connection with other areas of the same time in the region were discussed
The research methodology is fundamental based on field study, centralized exploration, review of historical sources and an adaptive approach to data sets. In addition to theoretical analysis, it is based on laboratory findings on findings such as glass objects aerial imagery and detailed documentary drawings, single-dimensional and multi-dimensional imaging of our background documents for the description of the subject, content development and presentation of the results of this research.
 
Features of the Newly Built Architecture of Rouha
The architectural evidence of this monument represents regular remains of the walls and architectural structures of the recently has been found building. The materials used in this architecture were mostly stones, broken thick-shaped slabs of rivers, along with gypsum mortar. The facade of all the walls was covered with gypsum coating. In the parts of the building, there were still remnants of gypsum floor, which in some places almost completely and firmly aligned and tightened with wall foundation, as a ridge of small stones on the sedimentary bed of a thickness of 30 cm. During the mapping, the Sassanid building of Rouha was identified. This building has two independent sections, which are called buildings A and B, The A-Building Plan shows the building is composed of three central, eastern and western halls, alongside each other. The central hall is about 4 × 9 meters larger than the others. Other halls, such as the western Hall of 360 cm in size, and the eastern Hall of 270 cm in size is the smallest hall. Although there is no significant symmetry in the building plan, the location of the main piers of the central hall and the type of cover structure could be imagined it So that the pier in front of each other carry the groin and may have been arched between them.
According to the architectural knowledge of this period, can say that this style of architecture belongs to the middle period or the end of the period Sassanid; and the cover of the ceiling of the eastern and western halls, with the accumulation of arched pieces, could be covered with arches. Also, the two niche of the western wall differ with other niches, this section of the building is different, and the cover is semi-dome and symmetry.
 
Conclusion
Cultural outcomes due to the impact and appropriateness of the favorable situation and condition of the Seymareh basin in various parts of it have often appeared in the form of small and large human settlements during the previous millennia. Tange kafari is part of this basin area and one of the most suitable areas for archaeological research, and identifies pieces, stages, and human exploitation from an immutable natural setting, especially during ancient and historical periods. General studies and local sampling in the discussed area were identified on the relationship between the pottery findings and the remains of the centralized architectural monuments, which reminded the columnar hall plan, the use of the porch and portico, the attention to the arch roofs, embedding the niche, and the base of stone pillars in enclosed spaces. Such evidence alongside structural connections and the relationships, have led to the beginning of coherent historical studies and analytical archaeological research in the construction of Seymareh Cultural Region.
 The Tangeh Kafri is a strait and crossroads linking Mesopotamia, Ilam and other ancient sites to the Seymare shores, it was the main corridor of cultures over thousands of years. Located adjacent to this strategic passage, the Sassanid Rouha building, which is an example of a monument in this cultural field. This method of Iranian architecture has been prevalent in the Sassanid era in Fars, such as Firoozabad, also are found in Zagros slopes around Ilam and Seymareh streams such as Bazzqavalleh, Galeh Gori. Le-Lar Darre Shahr, and Galeh and fire temples of Kolm or other remains of the Sassanid era, in this cultural area, Tang-e-Choobineh andTang-e Sheikh are located along the road of Darre Shahr toward the valley of the city Pol Dokhtar. On the other hand, and it reinforces the notion that the Seymareh Basin has had a thriving cultural life in the Sasanian period. Due to its close proximity to the Sassanid capital, such as Tiesfone, and the placement of the above mentioned area in the mountains of Zagros, there are proper defense facilities and a good climate, as well as the presence of Kolm fireplace at its immediate distance and taking into account the architectural structures left over from the period Sassanid in the Tange Kufri, it can be considered as a state building along with other magnificent monuments exploring this geographic area, and given the strategic location of the Tange Kufri, which tracks it from the margin of the Seymareh River toward Darre Shahr, and then,it was linked by Lorestan. Perhaps this building belongs to the local ruled with a small regional power under the banner of the Sassanian in the western cultural zone, which, in addition to controlling the road, was of great importance as a strategic passage or it was as a safe haven for local ruleds and Sasanian aristocracy. Continuing extensive exploration in this great city can answer to numerous questions in order to interpret and explain this magnificent and luxurious architectural structure in this cultural field.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ilam
  • Seymareh
  • Tangeh Kafri
  • Rouha
  • Sassanid

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