عنوان مقاله [English]
The Idier was first found at the secon survey campaign in 1383/2004. Idier was excavated 2004 too. Idier is located 16 km south of Aslandouz, in Moghan plain. Aras River and its branches, passing through the Moghan plain, have provided the appropriate environmental conditions for the establishment of human settlements. Suitable soil for sowing, proper humidity, rainfall of approximately 300 mm per year, relatively warm temperatures and low Mogan area, all indicate the great potential of this plain for the cultivation of high quality products, as well as the rich meadows of this plain, conditions for livestock breeders in order to preserve Livestock, in autumn, winter and spring. With these conditions, it seems that the area should have a large number of ancient sites that have been formed in this climate, but because of the extensive construction and leveling of the vast lands of the Moghan Plain with various agencies, organizations, institutions and farmers, these sites have disappeared and only a few. This research is based on the systematic survey of site and stratigraphy excavation. we have tried to answer some of the questions raised along with the typology of pottery. Questions such as how to look at the technological and decorative changes of Idira’s potteries; The influence of Obaid culture has existed in this area? What is the position of this culture in this area, despite the Dolma culture pottery in Idir’s findings? What impact does native culture have on clay products? And in the end, it’s a matter of special interest to the Indigo bronze ware, which has been using its pottery technology in neighboring areas along with its interactions. It can be argued, that the Chalcolithic potteries hier are local, although there are similarities to other northwestern Chalcolithic settlements in Iran.
Keywords: Chalcolithic, Moghan Plain, Idir, Dalma.
Several Archaeological studies have been carried out in the northwest Iranian cultural area of today’s Ardebil, eastern and western Azerbaijan political provinces. Archaeological studies in the province of Ardebil have not been pursued purposefully and for long periods which has left many questions unanswered. This was when it was discovered that the excavation excavations in the Idira hill were the first prehistoric field research in the Moghan plain of Iran that was in the study of archaeology in 2004, was identified. In the same year, started networking and systematic sampling w8 done to examine the site, the samples were very interesting and weren’t reported until then. Since his works included all the periods of chalcolit Without interruption. There were also examples of the middle paleolithic that raised questions for authors that we can not answer without stratography. The objectives pursned in this study are to identify and analyze the findings of this site. For this purpose, the documentation of chalcolithic pottery res from the Idira hill has been the basis of the study as part of prehistoric studies of this cultural region.
Because there is no pre historic cultural information in this geographic area. The questions of this research include: How do you change the Idira chalcolithic pottery in this erea? What’s the position of hisculture in this area, despiteth Dalma culture of pottery in Idira’s findings?
What’s the impact of native culture on pottery products? Finally, the present study is based on the assumption that the Idira chalcolithic pottery basins have on indigenous patterns and can be recognized with neighboring regions along with interactions.
The village of Idier is located 26 kilometers south of Aslandouz city, and Idira hill is northeast of the village, and is 210 meters above sea level at a geographical position of 420”, 20”,39” north latitude and 321”, 28”, 47” east longitude, the dispersal of the potteres are about 6 hectares, but the main site is 3 hectares and doesn’t from an independent hill. (pictures 1 and maps 1 and 2).
After an initial assessment of the sampling site as the only excavation trench, a 1×3-meter workshop was selected in the southeast of the Idier Tappeh, at the location where the hill, at location where was damaged the thickness of the cultural layers is up to 4 meters Virgin soil, which is characterized in this thickness of 14 layers and 5 cultural periods. Islamic cultural courses are late bronze chalcolithic (near, middle, late) and neolithic. The fifth cultural period is a number of rocky surface findings from the paleolithic period. The cultural stages studied in this paper include the layers of 9 to 12 stages of late chalcolithic, layers of 10 to 7 stages of middle chalcolithic and layers of 6 to 4 stages of near chalcolithic.
The First Stage of Late Chalcolithic Pottery
Pottery of the early chalcolithic has been found between layers 12 to 9, the pottery is rough or moderate, and they are shamout coars plants with a length of 10mm.
The Second Stage is Middle Chalcolithic Potteries
From the tenth floor of the site, changes were seen in the technology of pottery, but between layers six to eight changes were evident. Pottery dough is more dalicat and fewer rough pottery is observed among the samples. There’s no coarse plant shamout among the samples and the largest shamout is 5mm long.
The third stage is late chalcolithic potteries. From the sixth to the fourth layer, significant qualitative changes are observed in pottery. The pottery is delicate and the rough type is rarely seen in the sample.
The speculation took place on ancient site and in a small trench. But satisfactory results were found to have yielded significant results to clarify the status of various stages of chalcolithic; the researche, due to the lack of information on this geographical area, was required for a set of pottery documented from the exploration of the Idira hill. This study showed that no sudden changes, such as: the shape of dishes, dough, how to make, bak and dough, have not been created in the continuity of the pottery tradition of the study period; due to the shape of the edges and the floor of the dishes, dough and decoration with simple motives, the relative history of pottery is imported from late chalcolithic to near. The pottery similarities are different from Obaid courses, and only the general similarities found in all chalcolithic potteres are visible. In fact, there’s little influence in the area between the pottery of this site and the pottery from the central zagros Dalma period. I can be said that the pottery of this area during the period of chalcolithic is further studied in the cultural area. Therefore, despite the similarity of pottery culture with the regions of Azerbaijan beyond, chalcolithic, a long with other centers of chalcolithic communities are independent regions.