عنوان مقاله [English]
Southwestern of Lorestan province that known as Tarhan, is one of the most important areas in the aspect of Sassanian and early Islamic archaeology studies. Chaartaqi of Tamer khow located in this ancient reign. This Chahartaq located in Kohnani district in Southwest lorestan province in 20 Km north of Sassanian sites in behind of Seymareh dam. This is a part of a larger site called Chia Kalek-i-Tamer khaw. Like other Sassanian fire-temples in western Iran, was built with stone and mortar. The study carried out in this building shows that this Chahartaqi is the main part of a larger building with four stone piers, Corridors, firebox platform, and courtyard. There were also some rooms in the south of mound that would be related to the Chahartaqi. This feature shows that Tamer Khow’s Chahartaqi has been a fire temple. In this article according to the archeological evidence, we will attempt to analyze the architectural features, and compare it with other Sassanian fire temples. The main goal of this article is to answers the questions about the date of built fire-temple, rank and its similarities to other Sassanian fire-temples. The result shows that Tamer Khow Firtempele was built in late Sassanian era and have been worshiped in it the Adooran fire (local fire). In terms of the plan and architectural spaces, it has the most similarity to Ghale-e-kahzade in Romeshgan. Nevertheless, it has similarities to some of the fire-temples in western Iran such as Shian, Mil-i-Milagah and Chin jiayah. In terms of the plan and architectural spaces, it has the most similarity to Ghale kahzade-i- Romeshgan.
Keywords: Sassanid Era, Fire Temple, Lorestan, Chia Kalek-i-Tamer khow.
The formalization of the Zoroastrian religion in the Sassanid era has caused that the support of the fire temples was at the forefront of the plans of the kings and their advocate clergy. As a result of this, fire temples and their custodians became an integral part of Sassanid religion. And the kingdom and religion were linked together. According to religious teachings, the kingdom was desirable to be careful of religion. Zoroastrian religion in exchange for this guard provided the necessary facilities for the legitimization and continuation of the kingdom’s power. As a result, the Sassanid kings and their ministers made great efforts to build and restore fire temples. Historical texts refer to these efforts. Archaeological research has also revealed evidence of Sassanid religious architecture. One of the important areas of the Sasanian territory is Lorestan. Despite the importance of Lorestan in the Sassanid period and the presence of a number of the Chahartaqes and fire temples of this period in the region, but, little research has been done on these buildings and most of them remain unknown and obscure. One of these buildings is the Chahataq known as Tamer khow in the southwest of Lorestan province. This Chahartaq is located in Kohnani district in the Kuh-e-Dasht County. The study, introduction, and analysis of this Chahartaq, not only will introduce a new fire temple from the Sassanid era in Lorestan but also is a step towards a better understanding of the Tarhan area importance in the territory of the Sassanid’s kingdom. The purpose of this research is the introduction and description of the Tamer Khow fire temple and compare its architecture features to other Sassanid fire temples. The research questions are as follows: what period Tamer Khow fire temple was built? What kind of fire was worshiped there? What are the similarities and differences of this fire temple to other the Sassanid fire temples? The research hypothesis is as follows: Tamer Khow Chahartaq has been a fire temple constructed in the Sassanid era. It was built with a similar plan to other Sassanid’s fire temples by the regional rulers.
The Fire Temple of Kalek-e- Tamer Khow
The ancient site of Chia Kalek -e- Tamer Khow is located on the slopes of the “Larah” mountain on the surface of a natural hill alongside a fountain. Based on the scattering ceramics, the expanse of the site is about 5 hectares. In the survey of the surface of this site were obtained the cultural materials of the Neolithic period, Chalcolithic period, and the historical period. But, the most important establishment in this area is related to the Sassanid period. Architectural evidence of the Sassanid period included Chahartaq and buildings related to it. A number of ceramic and a few pieces of glass also were obtained From the Islamic period. The continuation of the establishment from the Neolithic to the Islamic period indicates its importance and special status among the settlements of the region. The building of Chahartaq has been constructed on the highest point of the Chia Kaleke-e-Tamer Khow’s site. Its axis construct is east-western and its sides are in line with the main directions. It is constructed with small stones and plaster mortar. The central area of Chahartaq is a square that each side is 9.5 meters. It has two entrance with 100 centimeters in wide. Entrances are located on the east and south Sides. The architectural features and ceramics evidence refers to the construct in the Sassanid era, which has been used until the last years of that period and even the early Islamic centuries. The lack of extensive and complex facilities around the fire temple building suggests that might have been praying a lower level fire than the fire of Mars in this fire temple. That known as Adoran or the local fire.
Studding of Architectural evidence of Tamer Khow site demonstrates that this monument is an example of complex Chahartaq that composed of a central space with a domed roof and cruciform plan, three corridors around the central space, a small courtyard in the east, firebox platform and Several rooms in 50 m shout of char tag. The cruciform plan has been a common plan for fire temples in Sassanid era. This plan has been used in Tamer khow Chahartaq. Architectural features such as bulky piers and squinches used to build the dome are important and credible evidence that this article, based on them, says that this building was built in the Sassanid period. The shreds scattered on the surface of the building also confirms this issue. Comparison of plans and architectural spaces of Tamer Kho Fire temples with some of other Sassanian religious buildings such as Shian fire temple, Mill milaga, Chin Zhieh, Torang Tappe and Negar in Kerman show that in terms of basic principles of the Sassanid religious architecture like cruciform plan of central erea, bulky piers and firebox platform is similar to them. In terms of having some feature such as corridors around central area, small platforms on west and south-west sides and small courtyard looks like Kahzad fire temple in Romashkan.