عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the prominent monument in the Bistoon monuments collection is a building called the Ilkhanid Inn, built on the walls of a semi-complete Sassanid palace. During the Ilkhanid era, it was converted in to Inn and after a short time, was once demolished and abandoned, one of the most Controversial issues in its historical life. During the last periods of the Islamic era, especially During the Qajar and Pahlavi periods, construction on the ruins Inn was carried out, which caused considerable damage to its main foundation and made it different to identify the demolition factors. In such as approach it is necessary to study the factors and causes of the demolition of this monument. therefore, the main purpose of the present study is to analyze how the building was demolished. This research attempts to used historical analytical method based on evidence and historical texts through historian’s descriptions of historical earthquakes while carefully studying the architectural stricture of the Bistoon Ilkhanid monument which after several chapters of German and Iranian archaeological excavations, done to discuss its historical life. Now the question is raised: what was the reason for the destruction and abandonment of the Bistoon Ilkhanid Inn? According to archaeological evidence of type of roof fall and bodies buried beneath the debris, it is assumed that the archaeological Inn was destroyed and abandoned by the earthquake. This hypothesis can be substantiated by the placement of the Bistoon in the vicinity of the Central Zagros High-Risk Fault complex and the large seismicity of it, which has historically damaged many buildings. Some historical texts also point this. This result of research indicates that due to numerous earthquakes, various era as of Kermanshah and various buildings such as the Anahi Temple at Kangavar and the Bistoon Ilkhanid Inn have been demolished and their architectural patterns deformed, so that even sometimes its population has fluctuated.
Keywords: The Bistoon, Inn, Ilkhanid, Earthquake, Destruction.
Built on the walls of a semi-complete Sassanid palace, the Ilkhanid Inn is one the most significant architectural artifacts in the Bistoon historical complex. This building is right opposite the carved plate of Farhad-Tarash from the time of Khosroo II. The main bedrock of the Ilkhanid Bistoon Inn is planned by order of Sassanid Khosroo Parviz and remains unfinished due to his untimely death. Then the stone walls of the palace in Ilkhanid period used to build the Inn. Eventually, after short period of the time, the building will be demolished and abandoned for an unknown reason, one of the most controversial issues surrounding the Bistoon Ilkhanid Innis how it was destroyed and abandoned. There were challenging discussions about this monument that caught the researcher’s minds, the first is the nature of the building in terms of its palace or inn, the latter the historical life of the building, and finally how it was destroyed.
Archaeological evidence of earthquake at Ilkhanid inn can be studied in two parts, the first is the destruction of roofs and walls and the second is the presence of some bodies buried under debris. During excavation in year 1380 the excavation board found a human skull that Lacked other organs. What is known is the presence of a cemetery from the Ilkhanid period in part A of the Sassanid palace as an Islamic cemetery and several graves have been identified in A during the investigations.
Therefore, parts of the inns interior cannot be regarded as a cemetery because except this, no other burial was observed and the presence of only one skull cannot confirm the existence of the cemetery. Unless it is thought that burying this skull has been a criminal result in the past. As part of the exploration to the south west, a workshop on the fragmented human skeleton is found. This skeleton was not completed and only parts of the bone were probably a woman’s skull, hummers, two pieces of vertebrae, scapular bones, clavicle. It should be noted that these bones do not have a particular order and therefore cannot be buried, in addition, the bones Lacked the burial stone and tomb structure. Also the Lack of information cannot explain the reason for this section except that it was buried under debris in the accident.
What is clear after the extinction of the Sassanids can be considered, the most important period of the settlement of the Bistoon region in the Ilkhanid era. During this period and especially since the region of Oljayto, the Bistoon region has received much attention and the Ilkhanid Inn was also built in the course of a major earthquake (According to Tusi Hamedani and Al-Amri) on the 5th or 7th A.H. This degraded work has Lost its original use. Various reasons based on archaeological evidence such as broken bones and buried corpses under the debris and the type of roof fall on them, as well as the earthquake confirmation of the destruction of the Ilkhanid Inn.