خوانش منظر باستان شناسی (بازسازی لایه های ادراکی و اکولوژیکی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

2 استاد گروه مهندسی طراحی محیط‌زیست دانشگاه تهران.

10.22084/nbsh.2019.17760.1853

چکیده

منظر، نمونه‌ای از دیدگاه صریح رابطه‌ی انسان با خود و جهان پیرامون او در طول تاریخ است؛ به شهر و زمین به‌عنوان مکانی برای زندگی و مکانی مبهم از حافظه‌ی جهان. آنچه که امروز در محیط ما می‌گذرد چیزی جز رابطه‌ی بستر طبیعی و مردمانش طی زمان نبوده و این رابطه منجر به درک تمامی اتفاقاتی می‌شود که در آن رخ می‌دهد. منظرباستانی، بستری از طبیعت در جوامع انسانی است که در طول زمان به‌واسطه‌ی فعالیت‌های بشری تغییر یافته و شکل گرفته است. منظری که حاصل تلفیق فعالیت‌های انسان و طبیعت است و این مناظر نمایانگر تکامل جوامع بشری طی زمان‌اند که در اثر بازدارنده‌های فیزیکی، ویژگی‌های محیط طبیعی و عوامل درونی و بیرونی فرهنگی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی خلق شده‌اند. آن‌ها نشانه‌های متنوعی از اثرات متقابل انسان و محیط طبیعی را دربر می‌گیرند و شامل منطقه‌ی جغرافیایی با فردی خاص یا یک فعالیت یا واقعه‌ی تاریخی مرتبط شده‌ می‌باشند؛ بطوری‌که بیانگر رابطه‌ی متعادل بین فرهنگ و طبیعت است. در این مقاله، مسئله‌ی اصلی نحوه‌ی خوانش مناظر باستان‌شناسی است. هدف دستیابی به تکنیک‌های خوانش منظر است، که نیاز به توضیح مفاهیم و روش‌شناسی، با استفاده از کار نظری و تجربی دارد. از این‌رو مشاهده و درک تأثیرات فرهنگی گذشته در تکامل قلمرو و سازگاری گروه‌هایی‌ست که در آنجا زندگی می‌کردند، می‌باشد. در اصل این تکامل فرهنگی به درک برخی از عناصر، که حاصل تغییرات در گروه‌های فرهنگی مرتبط با محیط‌زیست و تأثیر آن در منظر بوده، مورد توجه قرار می‌گیرد. مهم‌ترین پرسش، چگونگی خوانش این مناظر است و این‌که چگونه می‌توانیم با تحلیل ساختار لایه‌های اکولوژیکی و ادراکی به مِتُدی برای بازسازی و درنهایت خوانش مناظر باستان‌شناسی دست‌یابیم؟ براساس این سلسله‌مراتب، روش شناخت صحیح ارزش‌های منظر، شناسایی و بررسی مؤلفه‌های سازنده‌ی منظر، تشخیص اولویت‌ها و بررسی ارتباطات میان آن‌ها، درنظر گرفتن منطقه‌ی باستانی و محیط پیرامونش به‌عنوان یک کل منسجم، توجه به اجزای محیطی، مانند: پوشش گیاهی، حیات‌وحش جانوری، عناصر مصنوع بشر، جامعه‌ی محلی و فعالیت‌هایشان، به‌همراه شناخت لایه‌های ادراکی (به‌کارگیری حواس) و نیز تجزیه و تحلیل اجزاء با درنظر گرفتن یک کل همگن و... با توجه به مکان و زمان باید مدنظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Archaeological Landscape Readings(Reconstructing Perceptual and Natural Layers)

نویسندگان [English]

  • fatemeh heidari 1
  • homa behbahani 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Archaeology, Islamic Azad University Centeral Tehran Branch
2 Professor, Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

An example of a landscape The explicit relationship between man and himself and the world around him throughout history, what is happening today in our environment is nothing but a relationship between the natural environment and its people over time, and this relationship leads to an understanding of all the events which occur in the environment. The ancient landscape is a natural habitat in human societies that has evolved over time through human activities. A landscape that is the result of the combination of human activities and the nature, and these landscapes represent the evolution of human societies over time as created by physical deterrents, features of the natural environment, and internal and external cultural, social and economic factors. They embody a variety of interactions between man and the natural environment, including the geographic region associated with a particular person or activity or a historical event, so that it expresses a balanced relationship between culture and nature. In this article, the main issue is how to read archaeological landscapes. The goal is to achieve landscape reading techniques, which require explanation of concepts and methodology, using theoretical and empirical work. Hence, it is the observation and understanding of past cultural influences in the evolution of the territory and adaptation of the groups that lived there. In essence, this cultural evolution is considered in understanding of some of the elements, which are the result of changes in cultural groups related to the environment and its impact on the landscape. The most important question is how to read these landscapes and how can we, by analyzing the structure of the ecological and perceptual layers, find a way to rebuild and ultimately read archaeological landscapes? Based on this hierarchy, the correct way of recognizing landscape values, identifying and exploring the components of the landscape, identifying the priorities and examining the connections between them, taking into account the ancient region and its surroundings as a coherent whole, attention to environmental components such as vegetation, animal wildlife, human beings elements, their local community and their activities, Together with the recognition of perceptual layers (the use of senses), as well as the analysis of components, taking into account a homogeneous whole, etc., should be considered according to place and time. 

 
Introduction
By expanding the concept of cultural landscape and the value of ancient sites as part of archaeological landscapes, the need for studying and describing the landscape, its recognition and scientific analysis, is felt in order to achieve ecological-natural integrity. The basis of this hierarchy: proper recognition of landscape values, identification and review of constituting components of the landscape, identification of priorities and study of their connections, consideration of the ancient region and its environment as a coherent whole, consideration of environmental components such as vegetation, animal wildlife, human-made elements, local community and their activities, component analysis, taking into account a homogeneous whole, and... according to place and time.
Henceforth, archaeological landscape reading deals with the collection of first-hand information and data that involves the extraction of ecological and perceptual layers in time and place, as well as archival, library, and etc. data. Considering the recognition and analysis of archeological landscape based on the extraction of the above layers, the study of secondary information such as upstream projects, landscapes and laws, policies, statistics and trends in the development of historic sites and ... is done over time.
 
Conclusion
Wherever we are, we can understand the impact of human development on a natural landscape, less, more or more severely. We should not ignore the role and importance of man in the landscape, millions of people of different ages at different times and places are cooperating to create landscapes. At any time, the landscape can be considered as a complex system of dynamic and evolving interactions that the archaeologist can seek to understand.
In this paper, an attempt was made to explore archaeological landscape reading based on available resources according to various specializations, taking into account short, medium and long term periods as well as spatial and temporal searches, the feasibility of fluctuations (biomass environmental changes and human adaptations over time, etc.).
In this reading, human interaction with the environment was carried out through the collection of data and information at various levels (environment, geology, architectural remnants, artifacts, etc.), but in order to extract maximum cultural information these data should be gathered based on the environment in which it was established. Therefore, in order to understand the cultural evolution of a landscape, it is important to recognize the elements in the context. It is important to examine the natural and cultural characteristics of each region in order to be able, as far as possible, to understand the ways and means of thinking of the people living there.
In the end, landscape archeology is a comprehensive approach to landscape and understanding of the evolution of people who live and still live in it.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultural Landscape
  • Archaeological Landscape
  • Time and Place
  • Ecological Layers
  • Perceptual Layer

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