مناسبات منطقه‌ای و فرامنطقه‌ای شمال‌شرق ایران در دوره‌ی اشکانی، براساس دومین فصل کاوش‌های باستان‌شناسی تپه کِشت دشت، دامغان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشکده‌ی باستان‌شناسی، پژوهشگاه میراث‌فرهنگی و گردشگری.

10.22084/nbsh.2019.18328.1889

چکیده

محوطه‌ی کِشت دشت، یکی از محوطه‌های دوره‌ی پارت در منطقه‌ی دیباج دامغان است. مطالعه و مقایسه‌ی مواد فرهنگی آن، که از اهداف مهم این مقاله است، نشانگر تعلق و شباهت سبکی آن‌ها با مواد فرهنگی دوره‌ی پارت می‌باشد که پیش‌تر در همین منطقه‌ی جغرافیایی از محوطه‌هایی همانند تورنگ‌تپه، دامغان و قومس به‌دست آمده بود؛ لذا تعلق این محوطه به دوره‌ی پارتیان محرز گردید. منطقه‌ی شمال‌شرق ایران به‌عنوان خاستگاه تاریخی و یکی از مراکز اصلی استقرار قوم پارت، خصوصاً در دوره‌ی اولیه‌ی اشکانیان حائز اهمیت فراوان است و یافته‌های تاریخی حاکی از بسط و گسترش قدرت اشکانیان از این منطقه به‌سمت مرزهای غربی و نهایتاً تسلط تا حوضه‌ی فرات دارد. در این دوره، شاهد مناسبات ایران با مناطق همجوار نیز هستیم؛ لذا این نوشتار تلاش می‌کند با توجه به مطالعه‌ی سنت‌های فرهنگی پارتیان به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که تعاملات فرهنگی ساکنان کِشت دشت با مناطق همجوار و خارج از مرزهای سیاسی ایران چگونه بوده است؟ پژوهش حاضر برمبنای کاوش‌های باستان‌شناسی و مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای صورت گرفته است و با رویکرد توصیفی-تحلیلی، سعی در تبیین مواد فرهنگی پارتیان در شمال‌شرق دارد. از سوی دیگر، نظر به قرار داشتن محل مورد مطالعه در مسیر جاده‌ی ابریشم که به‌عنوان یک شاهراه تجاری بین شرق و غرب در دوره‌ی اشکانی شکل‌گرفته، تأثیر سبک‌شناختی و فرهنگی داده‌های این محوطه با دیگر مراکز استقراری آن‌ها قابل شناسایی است؛ از جمله وجود مُهری با نقش عقرب، به‌روشنی نسبت هنری آن با هنر بلخ و مرو را نشان می‌دهد. در لایه‌های فوقانی محوطه و برفراز انباشت دوره‌ی پارت، بقایایی از یک استقرار غیردائم -احتمالاً کوچ‌رو- شناسایی شد که به اوایل قرون دوم و سوم اسلامی متعلق بوده، و نشان از عدم گسترش آن در سرتاسر محوطه داشت. درمجموع از لایه‌های فوقانی محوطه‌ی کِشت دشت، تعداد 6 گور به‌دست آمده است که یکی از این تدفین‌ها درون تابوت چوبی انجام‌یافته بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study on the Cultural Relations of the Kesht Dasht Tepe in the Parthian Period Based on the Second Archaeological Excavation

نویسنده [English]

  • mahnaz SHARIFI
Academic Member of Iranian Center for Archaeology Research.
چکیده [English]

Damghan area was considered as one of the center’s Attention by the Parthians, which selected the region as its second capital. The crossing of Damghan commercial roads (silk road) is another aspect of its importance in Northeastern Iran, and the major part of trade throughout Northern Iran is from Damghan. One of the most important the area Located on the Silk Road is Dibaj Damghan Hill, where Archaeological excavation have received some spectacular effects from the Parthian period, indicating the cultural interactions of this region with other simultaneous sites in the North east of Iran along the Silk Road. However, Northeastern Iran has been the Location of important Developments in human settlement from pre-history to the present. Although the Damghan region has been the Location of significant historical events, in particular for the Parthian era we have lacked adequate data. Thus the results of research in the Dibaj Damghan area can help clarify issues regarding the material culture and the wider interactions of the region. The excavation described here is a contribution to our better understanding of historical developments in Northeastern Iran and the connection of that region with adjoining ones. The focus on the Parthian era is significant, since that dynasty ruled over a wide territory for several centuries and presided over one of the most important periods of Iranian history. 

Introduction
Semnan province is Located on the way of Silk road one the ancient Iranian heritages. Being surrounded by Alborz Mountains on the North and Kavir Namak which was once a home to a rich civilization, it has a special Geographical position and several climate conditions. Semnan province is Located on the south (central - east) slopes of Alborz highlands and the north side of big Cavir and therefore, from a geological point of view, belongs to two ground structures of (central) Alborz and central Iran. In the North of Semnan, “Semnan fault” is known as the border between Alborz and central Iran. The Northern stripe of Semnan province (the road connecting Garmsar- Semnan-Damqan-Shahroud) is part of the southern slope of Alborz having a high and coarse morphology and is usually referred to as the central-eastern Alborz. In general, Neishabour plain is a road heading towards west, from Afghanistan to Shahroud, and is a part of The Great Khorasan. The evince found on the way in the ancient regions such as azure, alabaster, and turquoise show that the east-west road from Khorasan to Damghan was always paid considerable attention to since 4000 AD to the Parthian and the Sasanid and then to the Islamic era (Hiebert & Dyson, 2002: 116). The eastern Iran is made up of mountain borders and barricades, misshaped valleys and huge spaces of deserts (Fisher 1986). Khorasan region is surrounded by Gorgan and the Atrak River on the Northwest, and by Kopet Dagh mountains I the north and northeast. The Northern border of Khorasan and the Iranian plateau is surrounded by mountains and is formed by the Atrak River and Mashhad plain, Hezar Masjid Mountain, the border of Kopet Dagh and the south chain including Binaloud and Shah Jahan mountains. The valleys located between the two mountains and the southern parts of Kopet Dagh are 1000 meters higher than the regions in the north of Kopet Dagh (Hiebert & Dyson, 2002: 115; Eduljee, 2007: 9).
 
Archaeological Evidence
Pottery, which tends to be abundant, is usually the best evidence for establishing the chronology of ancient sites. Study of the pottery, examining both its fabric and artistic style, not only can help determine the date of a settlement or stratum, but also can help in establishing some aspects of social conditions, historical changes and the nature of trading contacts. there are similarities between the Parthian wares we have discovered and those of adjacent regions, we may be able to discuss the economic transactions and social interactions of different cultural zones. A wide range of objects has been excavated at Dibaj Tepe. In Trench V at a depth of 30 cm we found a broken brown agate signet ring with a scorpion image. Also discovered in this trench was a shell cap of a glass scent bottle, a glass bead and a clay spindle weight. Trench VI yielded a bronze bracelet, an earring, ornamental beads, and clay spindle weights and earrings. The pottery is grey, beige, orange, red or brown and is made of temper, gravel and lime, with glazed surfaces. The decoration consists of horizontal lines carved on the shoulders of the vessels. Furthermore, the edge of most of the dishes slopes outward. The pottery of this region is comparable with that from other regions of northeastern Iran in the historical era, which suggests that the wares are indigenous and that there was cultural homogeneity across regions.
 
Conclusion
The excavation described here is a contribution to our better understanding of historical developments in Northeastern Iran and the connection of that region with adjoining ones. The focus on the Parthian era is significant, since that dynasty ruled over a wide territory for several centuries and presided over one of the most important periods of Iranian history. It is impossible to understand the substantial achievements of their successors, the Sasanians, without looking closely at the Parthian period.
While excavations of Parthian sites to date have focused largely on major centers, there is a great deal to be learned by studying thoroughly a smaller site such as Dibaj Tepe. We feel that its artifacts improve our understanding of non-elite populations in the Parthian era. The typology of the excavated potteries suggests that it might have been a shepherd’s settlement. Most of the pottery has an open shape which is best suited to pastoral life. To establish the chronology, we have compared this pottery with that found at several other Parthian sites where the cultural objects are similar: Tureng Tepe in Gorgon, the Damghan Plain, the defensive wall in Gorgon, the Atrek Valley in Khorasan, and Shahr-i Qumis in Damghan. This comparison suggests that the small shepherd community in Dibaj, even though it may have experienced inter-regional migration, never had significant interaction beyond the borders of this region of northeastern Iran. Additional proof of this can be seen by comparison and contrast with objects found in recent archaeological excavations focusing on sites connected with an immigrant tribe of Semnan. The seal excavated at Dibaj Tepe would seem to have come from some regional center, but what it tells us about political and economic interactions of this particular settlement is unclear. While there are some other artifacts which likely were obtained from elsewhere in the region, the polished dishes with carved decoration, a bronze dish and some glass vessels, their number and quality suggests limited financial resources in this local community. However, further study of this evidence and the accumulation of more material from additional excavation at the site may help clarify the nature of this local community and provide a better view than we now have regarding regional and inter-regional interactions in northeastern in the Parthian era.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Northeast Iran
  • Parthian Period
  • Dibaj Excavation
  • Burials
  • Cultyral Relations
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