عنوان مقاله [English]
Other than their true purpose as a means of trade, historical coins were always powerful adver-tising means in hands of the rulers. In this research, the main idea is to analyze figurative and written aspects of Farrah on Sasanian coins. The necessity of this research was the same reason to select this concept among tens of other religious concept to depict on the coins. Here, the main goal was to find the special type of Farrah depicted on them and to answer these ques-tions: why this type of Farrah is emphasized on sasanian coinage? What figurative and written aspects belong to this Farrah? And what impression in took from before and what effect it did on coins after Sasanian period? It’s presumed that figures on these coins have symbolic values. Research methodology was desk research. In this way, Sasanian coin photos, from the beginning to the end of this dynasty, pictured in authentic references as the statistical soceity were studied. As a result, it was concluded that the Farrah which was presented from the time of Achaeme-nids, is portrayed more prominent than before on Sasanian coins as figures of falcon crown, shining crown, ram crown and also coronate bust of king or god and in script as expression prayers and name of cities. Emphasized type of Farrah on Sasanian coinage was “Farrah-e-Shahi” and it was because of the attempt of Sasanian rulers to advertise their Farrah as a con-cept which has root in religion and politics simultaneously. With this, they confirmed their le-gitimacy from the view of Zoroastrian religion. The last sample of figurative and written Farrah was seen on a Buyid coin. Buyids were an Iranian dynasty and this way, they tried to bring life to Sasanian traditions.
In the book Avesta, Farrah is written as xvarǝnah- and in Pahlavi is written, in form of hozvaresh, farr or xwarrah (Amuzegar, 2017: 350). In Manichean and Parthian scripts, is written farrah which also means glory (Boyce, 2007: 66). We deal with different types of Farrah: 1- Farreh-e-Izadi (divine Farrah), 2- Farreh-e-Kiani or Shahi (Royal Farrah), 3- Farreh-e- Ariayi or Irani (Arian or Iranian Farrah), 4- Farreh-e-Mubadi or Payambari (priest or profit Farrah), 5- Farreh-e-Hamegan (common Farrah) (Amuzegar, 2017: 350)
How Farrah is advertised on Sasanian coins and this Farrah was how impressed from before Sasanian period and had what effects on next periods?
Aim of the Research
The aim of the research is to realize what type or types of Farrah are depicted on Sasanian coins and what written and figurative aspects had emphasized on it.
Significance of the Research
A gap in symbolism and religious studies of ancient Iran coins; and also the reason behind selecting this concept out of tens of religious concept to depict on Sasanian coins were the main significance of this research.
A: Does Farrah have different aspects on Sasanian coins? What are these aspects? What types do these aspects have and what are their properties?
B: Does Farrah survived on coins to a definite date after Islam? What are the last samples baring this concept and why Farrah was still advertised on coins?
C: What reason led to repetition of Farrah on Sasanian coins to this extent?
Here, the Assumptions are that many figures on Ancient coins have symbolic values and according to available data in their symbolism, believes of their creators could be realized. Besides, some of the scripts on these coins shows existing belief to Farrah in the time of producing and mostly, these were related to Gods giving power to the Sasanian ruler and representing him as the only just person to assume the royal throne of Iran.
On the basis of the studies accomplished in this research, on Sasanian coins, Farrah is depicted in both figurative and written forms. Figurative aspects of Farrah on these coins are as following: ‘crown decorated with falcon or falcon wings’ of Shaour I (CE 240-270), Bahram II, (CE 274-293), Ardashir II (CE 379-383), Bahram IV (CE 388-399), Piroz (CE 459-484) and Khosrow II Aparviz (CE 591-628); ‘radiate crown’ of Bahram I (CE 271-274); ‘crown decorated with ram’s horns’ of a Kushanshah depicted on the reverse of a Yazdgerd I (CE 399-420) drachm. All of these crowns implicate on royal Farrah (Farrah-e-shahi). On some of altars depicted on the reverse of Sasanian coinage, a male bust with halo or in flames is displayed. According to many coin specimens which on them the reverse bust exactly resembles the obverse bust, we conclude that both of them belonged to the current king and the reverse bust represent the royal Farrah. In the flames of the reverse altar, bust of Hormozd II (CE 302-309), Shapur II, Ardashir II, Shapur III (CE 383-388), Bahram IV, Yazdgerd I, Bahram V (CE 420-438) and Balash (CE 484-488) are recognizable. Moreover, bust of Godess Anahita is depicted on a coin of Khosrow II Aparviz.
Written aspects of Farrah are displayed in the script of a dinar of Buran (CE 630-631), in the “GDH apzut” script of coins of Khosrow II to the end of Sasanian period and also in the name of the mints Ardashirkhwarrah and Kwadkhwarrah.
After Islam, not only these aspects of Farrah didn’t disappear from the surface of the coins, but also some of them were written and picture on Arab-Sasanian, Spahbads, Arab-Tabarestan and Arab-Sistan coins. The last time, Farrah is portrayed and written in both forms on Buyid coin minted in mid-fourth century AH.
Study on different aspects of depicting Xwarrah/Farrah on Sasanian coin shows a relatively constant use of this concept from the beginning to the ending years of this dynasty. Generally, Farrah is depicted in two forms of written and figure on these coins. The last time, both written and figurative aspects of Farrah are presented on a Buyid silver drachm of King Rokn-o-dolah struck in 351 AH in Ray; by striking this coin, Rokn-o-dolal tried to revive Sasanian traditions.
It is worth noting that “Crowns referring to Farrah” such as falcon crown, radiate crown and ram crown were depicted on the most important part of the coins design and it were fitted on the Sasanian kings’ head; these crowns had replaced previous crowns such as turreted crowns which advertised most prominent political concepts or moon and star crowns which were symbols of the Iranian god Mithra and the goddess Anhaita and had religious concepts.
Emphasized type of Farrah on Sasanian coinage was “Farrah-e-Shahi” and it was because of the attempt of Sasanian kings to advertise their Farrah as a concept which has root in religion and politics simultaneously. With this, they justified their kingship from the view of Zoroastrian religion.