عنوان مقاله [English]
The valleys and margins of the intermountain plains between Harsin and Bisetun are among the key geographical areas in the Zagros Palaeolithic studies. Recent archaeological research has shown that some of the Zagros Paleolithic sites are adjacent to radiolarian rocks of chert. Darvi Tepe as one of these important sites with a considerable number of stone artifacts is located on the near of Chehr village and 10 km south of Bisetoon mountain. The geographical position of the Darvi Tepe is such that it lies between the Middle Paleolithic sites in the Harsin Mountains and the Paleolithic sites of the Bistoon Mountains. In this article, research questions were included what kind of usage does the site have on a rocky bed of natural radiolarian outcrops? By studing and typology of surface findings, what is the time period of Darvi Tepe? The study of the technology making and typology of the pieces collected from the Darvi Tepe shows that the site was used as an open workshop for the production of stone artifacts. The Surface findings from the site indicate that the Darvi Tepe is belong to the Middle Paleolithic period. The research on the findinds is based on library- field survey method. Also the relatively high presence of the LevaLeva technique and retouch on the debitage of the site are noteworthy. The presence of a large number of retouch pieces in a workshop site on the high quality raw materials was indicated that the low availability of raw material resources does not lead to retouch and it is the main reason for the retouch creating efficient edges. While the relative abundance of the Levaleva technique in the Darvi Tepe is confirming studies based on the presence of Levaleva in high Zagros, and this is another site that further substantiates the claim of Levalova in the High Zagros.
Keywords: Middle Palaeolithic, Levaleva Technique, Darvi Tepe, Workshop Site, Central Zagros.
The valleys and margins of the Highland Plains between Hersin to the Bistoon Mountains are one of the most important zones in the Central Zagros Basin, where numerous sites from various pre-historic periods have been obtained. Archaeological evidence from various parts of the region indicates that scattered human groups were present in the foothills and intermountain ranges of the area during the late Paleocene. Its environmental status seems to have provided the necessary conditions for the survival of these groups. Despite the importance of this area in Palaeolithic studies, it has not received much attention from archaeologists, and most of the Paleolithic studies in recent decades have focused on caves on the slope of Bistoon Mountains (Coon, 1951.Young&Smith,1966. Jaubert et al, 2006. Biglari, 2001). In this article, research questions were included what kind of usage does the site have on a rocky bed of natural radiolarian outcrops? By studing and typology of surface findings, what is the time period of Darvi Tepe? The study of the technology making and typology of the pieces collected from the Darvi Tepe shows that the site was used as an open workshop for the production of stone artifacts. The Surface findings from the site indicate that the Darvi Tepe is belong to the Middle Paleolithic period. The research on the findinds is based on library- field survey method. Despite the high importance of open sites in the area that are based on chert rock resources, there is little research to date on open sites and how to access raw material resources such as chert outcrops. Therefore, recognition of these open sites, which may have been workshops for the production of stone tools or animal slaughter sites, can solve some of the problems encountered in the Palaeolithic of the region and In terms of how much of the raw material is supplied in the sites further more to our knowledge of the Paleolithic area. One of these open sites is the Darvi Tepe which is located a naturally promontory on the eastern margin of the intermountain valley of Bisetun south, 3 km southwest of Gamasiyab river and 2.5 km north east of Chehr village.
Darvi Tepe is an approximate area of 1.3 hectares with a length and width 130× 100m and its highest elevation is 4.5 m above the surface of adjacent southern plains. The geological texture of the area is a combination of radiolate with limestone. The result of the systematic survey of the site was to collect a total of 194 stone finds from the open Darvi Tepe, which were divided into three workshops A, B, and C for greater accuracy in recording. This open site seems to be a place for the production of stone artifacts in the Middle Paleolithic period. Evidence this claim includes the high volume of raw material on the surface of the site, the cortex cores with one or more cropping effects, the high frequency of initial cotex removals of debitages, and even the retouching tools without the use of side edges that they also have a cortex. Frequency and percentage of debitages were 26.28% (51), tools 63.40% (123) and cores 20 (10.30%). The presence of retouched pieces (123) is relatively high in comparison to non-retouched stone tools, suggesting that retouching tools are the most used in the site stone findings. The presence of the Levalva technique is also another feature of the tools of Darvi Tepe site, which accounts for about 47.93% (93) of the total stone findings. The morphology of a total of 123 stone tools showed that the frequency of its different species were: points (32), scrapers (29), notchs (24), denticulates (18), The blades are levalva (12), drill (4), naturally backed knife (3) and burins (1). The presence of cortex was present in 132 (68.04%) of the tools, indicating that the process of flake-making and tool-making was carried out in sites.
The Natural Darvi Tepe, such as Harsin No.16 one of the open-air sites for the manufacture of stone artifacts in the Middle Paleolithic period, was formed on a radiolarian bed of mostly homogeneous and partially veined reddish-brown chert rocks. Considering the large volume of rock artifacts at this site, it can be said that one of the important sources of raw material in the region, for the production of stone artifacts in the Middle Paleolithic period, was supplied from the open-air site of Darvi. On the site, the abundance of raw material with effect of flake removal, cores and cortex debitages with retouched tools without the effect of use can be seen on the side edges. The presence of cortex in 132 pieces (68.04%) of the whole set of hand tools has been collected. Also, at least some of the Levallois artifacts used in the caves and rock shelters in the slopes of Mount Bisetun, such as Martarik cave, were supplied from the open-air site of Darvi. This is associated with the high production of Levallois artifacts at this site. This view is justified by the ten-kilometer distance of Darvi from Mount Bisetun.