عنوان مقاله [English]
Dargazin or in other words Darjazin city, one of the important areas of Hamadan province in Razan city, be longs to the Islamic era. (from the Seljuk period to the end of the Safavid era). This area has been of special importance throughout history due to its location in one of the entrance gates of the Hamadan province. .The present study is based on the analytical-historical method based on archaeological field data and written library documents .Due to the importance of Dargazin some documentary information about the architecture and cultural monuments of city, this city the necessity of purposeful study of archeology was required .Therefore, the archeological excavations of this area were carried out in 1391 to analyze the developments of the Islamic period in this area and to recognize the cultural, artistic and social achievements of Dargazin city with the objectives and answers to the main question ahead ..Due to the appropriate geographical location and strategic conditions in the region and the location of the this area between the residential and governmental centers of the western and eastern plains of different Islamic periods of Iran such as Zanjan plain, Qazvin in the northwest, Saveh and Rey in the northeast and Kermanshah and Hamadan in the western regions and also according to the Islamic cultural periods of that emergence and historical life in Darjazin, what effect has it had on the historical and political survival of different Seljuk to Safavid periods? The city of Dargazin has played an important role in some periods of history, so that sometimes the grandeur and description of the castle and the situation of the city have been compared with a logic like Diyarbakr in Iraq .During the Seljuk period ministers from this region relied on the ministry and were able to play a role in Iran’s history.It seems that the presence of these people in the administrative apparatus has been effective in development of this region since the Seljuk period on the basis of historical evidence and texts. (writings: Ibn Hawql, Muqaddasi, Shirvani and…). According to historical and geographical texts, these factors have made Dargazin play a more important role in the Ottoman and Safavid conflicts during the Safavid period, (the first half of the tenth century AH) because it has made it easier to capture the Hamadan region by occupying Dargazin, for example, Shah Ismail Safavid retreated to Hamadan’s Dargazin in the battle of Chaldoran to regain his strength .The reason for this claim was the capture of Dargazin castle during the Ottoman invasion of west of Iran by drawing three painting of this city. These paintings and examples of existing work and excavations can guide us to continue to know more accurately.
Keywords: Dargazin, Written Sources, Explore, Archaeological Findings, Architecture, Pottery.
Razan plain in the northernmost point of Hamadan on the northern borders is adjacent to Qazvin and Zanjan plains...This part of Hamadan province has a special location and strategic position and is considered as a communication route between the center of the plateau of Iran and central Zagros and the southern part of the center of the plateau today. Dargazin city has been on this route in different Islamic periods and this city can be considered as one of the important areas of Hamadan province. The region, as a link between the important points such as Zanjan, Hamadan, Qazvin, Golpayegan and Isfahan, has been considered by the rulers of the Seljuk to Safavid periods. On the other hand, the presence of the name Darjazin in the written Islamic sources, the surviving paintings and rich cultural works confirm this claim. (such as pottery, metal works, tombstones and…).
Research Questions and Hypotheses: The present study aims to answer the following questions; due to the appropriate geographical location and strategic conditions in the region and the location of this area between the residential and governmental centers of the western and eastern plains of different Islamic periods of Iran such as Zanjan plain, Qazvin, Ray in the eastern regions and Kermanshah and Hamadan in the western regions and with considering its cultural periods, what effect has the emergence and historical life in Dargazin had on the historical and political life and survival of different Seljuk to Safavid periods? The hypotheses that can be made are: suitable geographical location and strategic conditions and proximity to residential and governmental centers of northeastern plains such as Zanjan and Qazvin plains have been among the important factors in the formation and prosperity of Dargazin in north of Hamadan. Considering the size of this area and also the existing structures such as Azhar Shrine (Immamzade) and its cemetery, it may be possible to determine the urban structure of the Islamic period from the Middle Ages to the late Safavid period. Based on the collected topographic maps and its correspondence with the surviving paintings, it seems that the city of Dargazin had a regular. structure with a circular map. The structure of residential space in Dargazin area has followed a special pattern in orientation. Based on the cultural materials obtained from Dargazin, it seems that the mentioned area contains all the cultural sequences of Islamic periods and has reached its peak of prosperity in the Savafid period.
Dargazin Archaeological Studies
An ancient site of Dargazin, whit an area of more than 40 hectares today occupies a large area adjacent to the residential context and urban and rural facilities. Intrusion and seizures made on the surface and periphery of the area have created irregularities in the form of irregular ups and downs. However, due to the topography of the area, the distribution of material debris on the surface, as well as the available evidence, the area can be partially reconstructed. The eastern half of the area is less changed and has a more stable situation. The surface of this part of area is cultivated by farmers. But the western and northern half the area has been severely damaged due to its proximity to residential area and farms. Another complication on the surface of the area is the dried bed of the river that has passed through the northern half of the area and separated the northern of the area from the main texture.
At present, this route locates between the cemetery and the building of Imamzadeh Azhar in the northwest and the main texture of the area in the south and east. In the study and archaeological excavation of Dargazin in the first stage of studies to facilitate better understanding of the results obtained from archaeological excavations, the area and all features on the surface and its perimeter with a Total Station camera mapped and the map in squares 10×10 meters was networked (Map 2).
The created trenches are arranged from east to west in the squares in front respectively: eastern trench with dimension of 10×10 square meters T. Bg 82. The southeast trenches are located in Bf 82 square with dimensions of 5×5 meters. The western trench with dimensions of 10×15 meters (north—south side 15 meters and east–west side 10 meters) from the northwest, northeast, southwest, and southeast corners T. Bd80, T. B 80, T. Bd81, T. Be81are located in squares. In total, 4 trenches were excavated in this chapter to identify the artifacts (Picture 4).
In the archaeological division of Iran, what we call the archeology of the Islamic period has not received much attention from archaeologists. Although many site and artifacts related to the Islamic period have been identified and studied in archaeological studies, the information obtained from these studies has not been very significant. Archaeological excavations using written, source texts as well as other available information such as drawings and prepared from different periods can provide significant information. The city of Dargazin is one of such sites that has provided valuable data using written sources and archeological findings. According to written sources and archeological findings Dargazin city was one of the prosperous areas from the eighth century to the Afshari period. With an area of more than 40 hectares, this place is one of the most important social centers of the Middle Ages and Islamic period .According to the data, the area included the tomb called “Imamzadeh Azhar”, a large cemetery, public places, the ruling mansion, the bazaar, residential houses and castles and city towers .The purpose of the excavation was to reach the mentioned buildings, but as a result of the first archaeological excavation of this chapter in Dargazin area, only a part of two residential units was identified .Both units are based on Ron Isfahan in the northwest -southwest direction .Both units have square and rectangular plan .The units have multiple spaces with different uses. The spaces of each unit are formed between the main enclosing walls and the dividing walls separate each space from the other. Plan are introverted and centrally formed. The whole surface is well used and there is no waste space in any of the unit. The units are completely independent and separate from each other and their privacy is respected. The main and exterior walls of each unit are mainly made of Chineh and the sub-partition walls of the spaces are made entirely of raw clay and plaster. Gypsum has been widely used as a counting material. The surface of the walls are mostly plastered and sometimes used as mortar in the roof covering. The use of space is somewhat clear based on the structure and materials within them. The building unit’s facilities.