عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the results of the considerable archaeological studies of Malayer plain is the excavation of the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, this area is known as the nomadic area from the Neolithic period, that independent of permanent settlement centers, it offers a wide range of types+of pottery of regional traditions, the study and analysis of which will provide archaeological information appropriate to the mentioned period in the Central Zagros region. Pottery is one of the most important cultural materials in terms of quantity and quality among the findings of archaeological excavations on the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe Malayer. The pottery of this area cab be divided into two main groups: buff ware and red. Each group can be divided into sub-branches: painted and simple, and in terms of construction quality, those can be divided into two groups: medium and hard. The pottery mix is mainly herbal and different, so that on the surface and theme of some pottery, especially hard specimens, can be seen due to the presence of straw temper. The purpose of this research is primarily the typology and study of new Neolithic pottery on the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, and secondly, the identification and manner of cultural practices and proximity common pottery species in neighboring culturals. The method of the present study is based on comparative studies and with a descriptive-analytical approach seeks to answer these questions: what are the pottery found on the back Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe? Are the types of pottery Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe indigenous-local or traditional- imports from neighboring cultures? And which of the Neolithic sites of the Central Zagros is culturally related to the pottery species of Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe? Due to the monogamy and sloping nature of the Tepe communities Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe and due to the variety of pottery in the type of materials, quality of construction and appearance, while some of the pottery in this area is local, its quality can be seen in order areas of the period. Traced the Neolithic of the Zagros, also according to the characteristics of the pottery, Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe is dated to the late seventh millennium to the early sixth millennium BC. The result of the research indicates the close relationship between the pottery traditions of different cultures of the lowland of the Zagros in the Neolithic period such as Sarab, Goran and Qalagap Tepe.
Keywords: Central Zagros, Neolithic, Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, Typology, Pottery.
Malayer plain in the eastern shores of the Central Zagros is one of the mountainous areas on the southern slopes of the Alvand mountain range, which with its low slopes and in some cases rugged and mountainous with rich pastures has caused in the context of history and especially early rural communities as a pasture. A nomadic summer should be considered. Therefore, during the archeological studies of various European and Iranian delegations, this region has always been considered and discussed. (for example: Howell, 1979, Rural and Freedom, 1396). What is clear is that this plain has long been considered as the axis and communication corridor of different areas of the prehistoric period in the warm seasons of the year has welcomed nomads living in the surrounding low plains, which has continued to this day. (Beik Mohammadi et al, 1397: 63-82). One of the results of considerable archaeological studies in this area is the excavation of the Posheh Forodgah Tepe in Malayer, where the main cultural materials discovered in this area are pottery (for more information on the geographical situation and findings of this area refer to Beik Mohammadi et al 1397, 69-74 and 1399: 7-26). This area is known as an area related to nomadic communities from the Neolithic period and independent of permanent settlement centers, offers a wide range of types of pottery of regional traditions, the study and analysis of which is archaeological information relevant to the period. Will provide the Central Zagros region. What can be deduced from the field studies is that no findings have been obtained that indicate that production and baking of pottery in the area and it seems that the process of forming and decorating the pottery has been done in another place.
Different types of Neolithic pottery on the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe
The pottery of this area can be divided into two main groups: buff ware and red. Each group can be divided into two – sub – branches: painted (motifs) and simple, and in term of construction and typology. The main feature of the pottery temper is mainly plant and in different sizes; Neolithic pottery the Tepe Poshte-Forodgah has all the characteristics of common Neolithic pottery of the Central Zagros; Despite the similarities in the method of construction, the type of temper (mixture), the amount of heat, and how it is shaped and decorated; at the same time, these pottery show local features – As with other Neolithic sites, a common feature of the pottery on the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe is insufficient heat and improper cooking with a temper of straw and handmade, which can be seen in all types of Neolithic 3 phase, generally, pottery receives non-uniform heat by baking in kilns and open ovens, and sometimes the color of the pottery corresponds to the temperatures it is exposed to, and the color change is evident in their body, which must be due to lack of known furnace temperature control and direct heat. Accordingly, the pottery of this period is porous and rough and the core of the pottery is gray and dark in color (Fig. 1). Three different types of pottery, such as plain red pottery, buff ware motifs, bagel, and decaying geometric pottery, include the shapes and compositions of the pottery on Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, in total, from two workshops (I and II) 6 settlement phases have been indentified, which have been obtained through different types of pottery, three new Neolithic settlement phases (A, B and C) of this Tepe, from the upper to lower layers, were identified, as follows: 1. New Neolithic phases A with pottery in geometric motifs similar to the new Sarab of phase A, (Fig. 5) 2. New Neolithic phase B: with pottery species with red clay coating and red – painted buff ware with ocher (Fig. 9) 3. New Neolithic phase: plain, without motifs pottery with a very brittle and rough plant temper (mixture). Soft type pottery (Fig. 19).
The study of pottery discovered from the Posheh Forodgah Tepe shows that this area belongs to the Neolithic period with three different phases (A, B, C). In response to research questions, it can be said that all Neolithic pottery in this area is handmade and has hollow and fragile texture. Most of the pottery in this area is made clay-covered pottery in the color range of reddish-brown and buff ware. But the most common colors are red and buff with a plant temper. The amount of plant temper (mixture) is such that it can be seen well inside and on the surface of the pottery and includes the nature and characteristics of the contaminated straw pottery. Inside all the pottery is dark, which is the result of improper cooking in stoves or open ovens. Most pottery has no decorative motifs and is simple in form; a variety of open and closed mouth bowls with flat and sometimes protruding floor, large shallow bowls with simple edges bowls with protrusions close to the bottom of miniature cups include a variety of shallow trays with vertical and convex bodies with flat bottoms. It can also be said that common types of pottery on the Posheh-Forodgah Tepe due to the semi-monocotyledonous and nomadic nature of the communities present on the Tepe and considering the variety of pottery in the type of materials, construction, quality and form and appearance of some pottery while local, this area and its coordination can be traced in other Neolithic areas of Zagros such as Goran and Golagap in Lorestan and Siahbid, Sehgabi and Sarab Tepes in Kermanshah province. The present study concludes that the presence of Neolithic pottery in Malayer plain is more of a local origin and endogenous production, most of the origin and result of the presence of semi-monogamous and nomadic communities from the lowlands of different parts of the Central Zagros to the plains and high slopes in Hamedan province.