عنوان مقاله [English]
In the fourth millennium and early third millennium BC, with the complexity economic and social relations between the societies, we faced a different form of economic, political and cultural interactions in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Trans-Caucasus and the Iranian plateau. During this time, coinciding with the formation of Uruk culture and the expansion of the influence of Mesopotamian societies beyond their main centers, in the northern and eastern highland of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Transcaucasian culture is present. At the same time, in the basin of Urmia Lake, there is a cultural gap between Hasanlu VIII / the Late Chalcolithic period/ Pisdeli and HasanluVII / the Early Bronze Age period. Therefore, the transition from Hasanlu VIII to Hasanlu VII is an important issue in the prehistoric of this region. Furthermore, due to the interaction of Uruk, Kura Arax and Nineveh V in some sites, so it is important to study the distribution and intercultural interactions in this period. The aim of this research is to study the cultural interactions of the people of this cultural region in the prehistoric and on the other hand to identify the position of the northwestern region of Iran in cultural and economic exchanges between the Iranian plateau and the Trans-Caucasus and Mesopotamia. The cultural interactions between the cultures of Uruk, Kura-Arax, and Nineveh V and the changes in the cultural and social relations of Central Zagros and northwestern Iran due to the presence of Trans Caucasus culture are the most fundamental research questions. This research with using descriptive-analytical method as the final result after examining and studying the interactions of Hasanlu VIII and VII concluded that during this period Ushnu-Solduz valley as a cultural border caused the separation of southern site of Urmia lake and the eastern part of the Central Zagros with the culture of Uruk and Ninevite V from the northern and northeastern sites was influenced by Kura Arax. Gradually, after the domination of the Kura Arax, sites of Uruk were abandoned and the Kura Arax people emerged as a new power in the region.
Keywords: Hasanlu VIII, Hasanlu VII, South of Urmia Lake, Uruk, Kura Arax.
Northwest of Iran, due to its strategic location, cultural benefits, its favorable biological conditions, including high environmental potential and Special communication as a natural handicap has always been a concern for various human societies from the 7th millennium BC to the present. During the fourth millennium BC, a complex system of urban social organizations was developed in Mesopotamia. One of the signs of the government in Mesopotamia was the regional interchange network because the Mesopotamian cities were very poor in terms of mineral and natural resources and many of the raw materials needed to make products from the eastern and northern regions were imported. The lack of natural and mineral resources in Mesopotamia and the availability of these resources in the highlands created a commercial and transalpine trade area, which made the Mesopotamians procure materials from the Zagros Mountains. Because more developed political, social and economic structures were developed in the communities of the southern Mesopotamian, they were controlled from their colonies or as their business partners. Although many of the most dramatic developments in the field of early social development occurred for the first time in the southern Mesopotamian but the heights of eastern Turkey, western Iran, the Transcaucasian region (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan) as well as the northern sites of Russia were also affected. At this time, we witness the cultural presence of Uruk culture in the southern Mesopotamia and the early Trans-caucuses culture in caucuses region. The development of the Uruk culture is not just leading to the central Zagros. Sites with material effects of Uruk culture in northwestern Iran are also identified in the Little Zab river basin. The Uruk culture in northwest of Iran is in horizon with Hasanlu VIII / Late Chalcolithic period and the beginning of the early Trans-caucuses culture in the Iranian plateau region coincides with Hasanlu VII. This has led some researchers to understands the causes of the disappearance of the Uruk sites and the simultaneous occurrence of the incident with the migration of people from Trans-caucuses culture, and consider immigrants as the main cause of the incident. Since there is a clear gap between the period of Hasanlu VIII (late chalcolithic/ Pisdeli period) and VII (early bronze age) in the chronological table of northwest Iran, therefore, the article attempts to study the transition from Hasanlu VIII to VII, the study of cultural tradition Hasanlu VII and intercultural cooperation in this period.
Methods and Materials
In the northwest of Iran during this period, two cultural traditions of the early Trans-Caucasus in the northern and northeastern parts of the Urmia Basin and the culture of POW in the south of the Urmia Lake basin have been in progress. It can be said temporally that the culture of the early Trans-Caucasus in the northwestern region has a time priority over the POW culture. With the presence of early Trans-Caucasus culture in the northwest and central Zagros, radical changes are made in cultural relations between the Iranian plateau and its neighbors. The control of trade routes that preceded the domination of the Uruk culture, at this time dominated by the Kura Aras immigrants. A remarkable point about the Yanik culture was their acceleration in Zagros movement and staying in the east-west business axis, so that the absolute chronology of the Kura Arax culture in the Yanik Tepe (3200-3,300 BC), Kul Tepe Jolfa (3100/3200 = 3700/3600 BC), Tepe Pisa (2460 -+ 88 BC), Tepe Gurab Malayer VII (3148 BC), and Godin IV (2950 BC) also confirmed this.These migrants have started to travel simultaneously throughout the region, and in areas that are not commercially significant, there is no controversy and we see the civilian presence of these minorities. And in front of any place that along the main line of these people is the violent presence of these tribes. These hostile conflicts are seen on Godin VI, Geoy Tepe and Yanik Tepe. Therefore, it is anticipated that, probably, people of the Bronze Age settled on arrival at large and vast plains near water resources and communication routes and, during a limited time, they move towards the commercial Zagros trade and cut off the domination of the Uruk on this way. Then they appear as a new power in the region.
With the presence of the Yannik people in the northwest and central Zagros, there were major changes in social activities and cultural relations between Iranian Plateau and its neighbors. The control of trade routes, previously under the control of the Uruk, is now dominated by Kura-Arax migrants (Alden, 1982). A remarkable point about the people of Yangiq culture was their acceleration in moving along Zagros and in the east-west business axis, so that the absolute chronology of the data of the Kura Arax culture in Yaniq Tepe (3200-3300 BC), Kul Tepe of Jolfa V (3200/3100 - 3600/3700 BC), Tepe Pisa (2460 +_ 88 BC), Gurab VII of Malayer (3148 BC) and Gudin Tepe IV (2950 BC) indicate their acceleration in access to this axis (Map.3). This indicates that there was no interruption in their movement from the mainland to the Iranian Plateau and in fact we do not face diffusionism of population. They began to move around the region concurrently and in areas that were not commercially significant, no conflict existed and the peaceful presence of these people was observed. Quiet and distant conditions like these are also seen in the areas like Ahranjan, Haftavan, Hasanlu, Jolbar, Gijlar, Kohne Pasge Si Tepe, Zarnaq, Ali Abad Bukan, Shirlou, Daerman Tepe, Pir Taj, Tepe Pisa, and Gurab. Conversely, every place along the main course of the movement of these people witnessed the violent presence of them. This violent occupation can be seen in the areas of Godin VI, Geoy Tepe K, and Yaniq Tepe. The existence of a defensive wall and evidence of burning at the Geoy Tepe, K Yaniq Tepe, Godin VI, as well as the presence of 2, 000 slings, a type of weapon and mace in Godin Tepe, indicate this coercive presence. Therefore, it is anticipated that the people of the early Bronze Age settled near water resources and communication routes after entering large and vast plains and moved to Zagros to take control of commercial routes over time. they completely cut off the Uruk’s control over the highway and emerge as a new power in the region.