عنوان مقاله [English]
The Desert edge Sites as a species of settlements of the Bronze Age are composed of other Sites due to different and unfavorable living conditions. So far, a general comparison of how and why the formation, growth, and decline of all these settlements have not been done. Despite these environmental differences, analyzes and interpretations of the formation, progress, and decline of all Bronze Age sites are evaluated with the same criteria. But the marginal areas of desert are largely ecologically poor and lack many sustainable ecological factors for sustainable settlement. The study area of the desert is located between the Indus Valley and Iran and the evidence suggests that these regions appeared in the late fourth millennium, growth has been in the mid-third millennium and decline in the late third millennium and early second millennium BC and the livelihoods were initially based on agricultural and livestock resources and then at the apex of their expansion, largely on the basis of production, access to mineral and industrial, commercial and non-agricultural resources. The main questions included the livelihoods and chronology of this area and some of the goals were to identify and study the process of desert margins formation and the patterns of livelihoods in the desert, distance from the desert, It was further studied and understand the variables that represent the different livelihood, economic and productive structure of desert marginal communities from other Bronze Age sites are examined. The research method is based on historical-analytical method; The results indicate the peak of flourishing these areas in the middle of the third millennium and according to statistical comparisons, nature of many of the desert margin sites, depended on the intermediary role of these areas in economic transactions as an element and the driving force and industrial production and export of raw materials have been crucial to the development of these sites.
Keywords: Desert Edge Sites, Bronze Age, Exchange, Trade, Industry, Mines.
Desert as a natural phenomenon, has an important role in the structure of the adjacent areas. This role had an undeniable impact on the development of these areas in both negative dimension (environmental resource limitations) and positive (the formation of Sites on its margin and the conversion of sites as trade intermediaries). The studied Bronze Age sites includes Thar and Cholistan deserts on the margin of the Indus River, Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lout in Iran, Registan Desert in southern Afghanistan and South Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan. Most of the area’s topography is rough and harsh that it mainly consists of large deserts, high mountains, large valleys, wide plains and occasionally river deltas. Thus where there is no permanent water and vast land for agriculture, Regions cannot accommodate a large population as a result, the desire to connect with other areas to compensate for shortages and also the development of exchanges is a great way, not only to get out of isolation, rather, it is persistence over time. Study of the formation of the desert margin areas and its relationship to contemporary fertile areas, as well as the general revision of widespread intervention in these areas, it can provide an overview of the livelihoods and communications of the desert margins. One of the reasons for dealing with the margins sites in the Bronze Age is the development of these areas and patterns of livelihoods during this period; that’s why chronology of this region is necessary In order to Behavioral patterns of living. In the present study, It has been attempted by using statistical comparisons of these areas, environmental, cultural interactions, comparative chronology, regional communication, livelihood review each of the areas mentioned by the remains of sites be investigated and compare the rise and fall of these areas in the Bronze Age. In order to achieve these goals, it has been attempted to investigate environmental and acquisition factors (trades, communication routs, etc.).
Questions Discussed in This Article: 1. Does the comparative chronology of the Bronze Age margin sites overlap? 2. What were the livelihoods of wilderness areas in each study area?
Existing evidence suggests that these regions differ in their occurrence, but overlap to some extent in most areas. Depending on the margin desert sites in what areas are located; their livelihoods are different. The Research Methodology used is historical-analytical. Then using library studies and Statistical population, areas of study are discussed.
In the Indus River Basin, four types of settlements have been identified which Includes Harappa-type settlements, early Harappa settlements or Kot Diji phase, or middle Harappa settlements, and later Harappa settlements. In the desert margin sites of Lout, The emergence and decline of the sites was simultaneous with late Chalcolithic and late Bronze Age. But the situation is somewhat different in the sites of Dasht-e Kavir margin. The formation of the Tepe Hisar in the Chalcolithic Age and its decline in the Iron Age and Gholvi Darwish is simultaneous with Protoliterate and period A is related to the Iron Age. On the margin of the southern desert of Turkmenistan, Geoksur basin sites emerge from the Middle Chalcolithic Age and disappear in the early Bronze Age. In intermundane sites, from the early Chalcolithic, the desert margin sites are beginning to emerge in these areas and in the late Bronze Age, The sites become smaller and by the end of this period they will all be abandoned. There are two different types of livelihoods in Turkmenistan’s desert margin sites in the Geoksur and Northern Kopet Dag basins: In the settlements north of the Kopet Dag, It seems that extensive farming is common in sites such as Altyndepe and Namazgah. The industrial dimension is more clearly seen in the sites, In Iran’s sites, especially in Shahr-e Sokhteh, Shahdad, Hisar and Arisman, The economy and livelihoods were largely based on trade, the production of semi-finished goods, the manufacture of precious and semi-precious stones. Although the number of Indus margin sites is not comparable to other sites, but there is an egregious difference in the extent and time sequence of each settlement in these areas, and even though have a relatively large range, but in terms of stratigraphic sequence, they cover a short time span, so that no area can be found that has a regular and consistent stratigraphy sequence.
AS for the variety of sites on the desert margin, progress and cultural sequence and livelihoods have varied in each of these areas; these areas were mainly were located in the affected areas that they could fill the vacuum caused by long routes on the safe margins that the desert created and organized trades communications and by controlling the security, supply, and processing of certain industries such as semi-precious and precious stones, metals. In the desert margin sites of Iran and Turkmenistan, apart from their different environments, the economic structure was generally based on trade with other regions, but in the desert margin sites of the eastern part of Indus, The structures were formed semi-nomadic and camp site. In most of the desert margin sites, there was a large site that other sites were exchanged with this site and this structure would concentrate power and wealth in these areas so that was the result of communication with other major civilization centers. Thus, the result was a connection with other important centers of civilization. The Sites went into decline in late Bronze Age, this was due to a number of reasons, including the redirection of trade’s routes and communication was totally cut off and endangered the nature of these sites.