عنوان مقاله [English]
Imamzadegan is one of the most important Shrine to the Iranian people who are always revered. In each region, due to the existence of a specific climate and a particular artistic boom, according to religious beliefs in the same area, the construction of the Imamzadeghans is different from the arts. One of these Imamzadeh, Seyyed Hamzeh is in the city of Tabriz. On one of the interior doors of this building there are various decorations including icons, hands, and inscriptions of prayers verses and phrases. The purpose of this research is to identify the types and characteristics of contemporary Azerbaijan metalworking. Accordingly, and considering the prohibition of illustration and iconography in the sacred places, the present study intends to investigate the motifs of metal works and the reasons for installing these Icons on the door of this place. The main questions of this research are: What are the features of the metalwork installed on the door of Imamzadeh Seyyed Hamzeh mausoleum? Given the prohibition of illustration, especially in a religious place, what were the reasons for installing these metal works on the door of the Imamzadeh mausoleum? A descriptive-analytic approach has been used to answer these questions. The information and data required for this research were collected through field observation of metal ornaments on the door and library method and the method of data analysis is subject to qualitative research. The results show that these objects are made of worthless metals and influenced by Qajar folk art. The importance and place of this place in popular belief, the cause of the installation of these objects on the door of Imamzadeh and has been a kind of tool for making Muslim vow.
Keywords: Imamzadeh Seyyed Hamzeh Mausoleum, Tabriz, Metal Decorations, Icon, Folk Art.
Religious places, in addition to performing worship, such as religious ceremonies, include elements and beliefs that are commonplace and even hidden in the identity and cultural layers of society. The artistic decorations of these buildings can convey the concepts and worldview of their community.
The beliefs of the people have made the Imamzadegan become a holy place and a place for the presence of the needy people. In the geographical range of Iran, in every city, there are domes and minarets that indicate the burial of the children and relatives of the infallible Imams. The expansion of the Mausoleum of the Imamzadegan in the geographical area of the Iranian land has created artistic expressions consistent with the cultural identity and popular belief of the area. One of the Mausoleum belongs to Imamzadeh Seyyed Hamzeh in Tabriz. This place has various plastering, mirroring, wall painting as well as metal decoration on the interior door of the Mausoleum. One group of these lattice ornaments belongs to the Safavid period and the other to the Qajar period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for the installation of these works on the door of Imamzadeh Mausoleum, with the aim of introducing metal ornaments, especially the Qajar period arrays. The purpose of the research is to identify the types and characteristics of Azerbaijan metalworking in contemporary times. Accordingly, the main questions of this study are: What are the features of the metal works installed on the door of the Mausoleum of Sayyed Hamzah? Given the prohibition of illustration, especially in religious places, what were the reasons for installing these metal works on the door of Imamzadeh’s Mausoleum? Studying these works can lead to an understanding of some of the contemporary art of metalworking in Azerbaijan.
This research is descriptive and analytical and the information in this field study is gathered by visiting the monument and observing the interior door and taking photographs of the metal arrays installed on the door as well as the library method. The target population in this study is metal decorations related to the Qajar period installed on the door of Imamzadeh Seyyed Hamzeh’s Mausoleum, including Icons, Hands, and inscriptions. In addition to the Qajar-era metal Ornaments, lattice steel inscriptions from the Safavid era were also installed on the door so Samples were selected by purposeful sampling and qualitative data analysis.
Seyyed Hamzeh was highly respected during the Ilkhanid period, and after his death the Mausoleum has been respected. There are two doors in this Mausoleum with metal ornamentation on it. The inscriptions related to the Safavid period and the rest of the ornamentation date back to the Qajar period. These decorations resemble the mosque of Saheb al-Amr, including Icons, hands and inscriptions. The history of these Icons can be traced back to Iranian art history and equated it with the sun’s motif. In the Islamic era, this role can be traced back to the role of the sun lady. The peak of this figure is related to the Qajar period which is depicted alone or in conjunction with the figure of the Lion and it can be related to the beliefs of the Shiite religion in this period. The role of the hand is also known as the symbol of the achievement of Holiness Abul Fazl. Of course, this sign also includes other meanings, such as the Five Al-Aba’a, which includes the Prophet and Fatima and her Husband and children. Writings are another set of motifs that’s with the Nastaliq Script and simple Script Without aesthetics and depending on the subject of the text, they appear in Arabic or Persian. The sanctity that people on this place they have installed these works on the door for their own needs. Health, longevity, or access to the opposite sex may be the motivation for installing these objects. These works can be considered in the category of Folk art, so the function of folk art here is to objectify the mental forms, beliefs and thoughts of different social classes. For this reason, in addition to the aesthetic enjoyment of art it is a purposeful function to understand the fundamentals of traditional community culture.
On the porch of the entrance to the shrine of Sayyed Hamzah are silver, low grade, tin and brass metal objects. These objects include Icons, Hands, Tablets and Inscriptions. The history of these Icons can be traced back to the role of the sun in Iranian art. The role of the sun with the nature of light and heat that gives life to all beings and promises life and hope to life can be linked to the role of these faces. On the other hand, the sun alone or with the lion was one of the most popular Qajar motifs, a role that was interwoven with Shiite beliefs.
These objects, with their simple features and style, represent popular art, thereby reflecting layers of historical, social, and religious identity within the Qajar community. The people of Tabriz made their pilgrimage to their shrine. Therefore, these works can be regarded as a Talisman that is installed as a vow or as a sign on the door of this place. Phrases such as “Ya Hossein Mazloom” and “Ya Abbas Dakhilam” with simple and elementary Script on these works indicate the appeal of the poor and middle class to the Imams.