عنوان مقاله [English]
Our past artists knew how to use “what”, “how much” and “where”, and thus our rich arts and architecture. Contemporary housing is distanced from the traditional housing model, which is in tune with the rich Iranian-Islamic culture. Eliminating the gap created by both traditional and contemporary patterns requires the retrieval of the values and principles of traditional architecture. The shape of the house is influenced by several factors, all of which are not of the same significance and impact level. The biological spaces in each region have been influenced by the cultural, environmental, social, historical and political origins of that region. The purpose of this study is first of all to achieve the indicators that affect the desirable spatial deployment and then prioritize these indicators in the spatial structure of Iranian-Islamic housing. For this purpose and using descriptive-analytic research method, firstly with the help of library studies and based on the five principles of Dr. Pirnia, the principles of design for spatial organization in traditional homes are presented, which include background and texture, spatial, confidentiality, Geometry, dynamism and construction. Then do some field research, its representation in the spatial structure of the historical ADAB house of Semnan was studied using the diagrams of the syntax of space and software Depthmap. Finally, according to the analysis and analysis of the information gathered, the arrangement of spaces in the semantic spatial discipline of ADAB house’s Semnan by means of the multi-criteria decision making method of Topsis, respectively, is vestibule, entrance, summer and winter, courtyard, guest House, kitchen , toilet and warehouse were prioritized. The results of the research show that the architect based on cultural and religious beliefs, geographic factors and neighborhood of the region and the shape of the land, has organized the traditional home spaces. Therefore, in order to enhance the thinking of the architectural community and achieve a superior architecture, recognizing and exploiting the authentic architecture of the past, it has a significant and significant share.
Keywords: Design Process, Space Syntax, Traditional Houses, Topsis Method, Semnan ADAB House.
Historical architecture and textures of traditional Iranian cities are the history of the culture and environment of the people who have been forgotten due to the intellectual neglect of the space of recent decades of Iranian architecture and urbanization. The use of housing quantitatively accounts for the highest percentages of urban structures, including historical texture. But in terms of quality, the type and design of housing architecture has a significant and deterministic effect on the way and quality of life of different social strata. Therefore, from two qualitative and quantitative perspectives, paying attention to the design of suitable housing and in accordance with the native culture in each region of Iran in general and the design of housing in the historical context is particularly important (Akrami and Zare, 2014: 56). A home is a place in which a person, while protecting himself against climate factors, can circumvent the pressures and limitations of the community. A home is a place for human rest and peace of mind (Morteza, 2008: 133). Many elements and elements have played a role in the formation of traditional Iranian homes. The factor of culture and understanding of human beings from the world and life, which includes religious beliefs, social structure of the family, way of life, as well as social relations of individuals, has had a significant role in housing and organization of its spatial divisions (Masaeli, 2009: 29).
Purpose and necessities of the research: This research is aimed at identifying and prioritizing the factors affecting the desirable spatial deployment. By investigating and analyzing the spatial environment of the House of Literature using the Topsis multi-criteria decision-making method, we tried to identify the position of these principles in the hidden housing model Iranian-Islamic. The syntax of architectural space is one of the methods used in analyzing the sample. The syntax in this method means the investigation of the relation of each unit of space in a set of adjacent spaces (Memarian, 2002: 77).
Research questions: The present study also seeks to answer the following questions: 1) What factors are used in the formation of traditional houses, which are a source of human tranquility and arranged their material and spiritual needs in one place? 2) What are the elements of spatial influence in the formation of traditional houses? 3) Which elements have a more significant role in shaping the space-based Iranian-Islamic housing system? 4) How can spatial factors and elements be prioritized in relation to how to influence the shape of the house?
Research method: The present study is of a descriptive-analytical nature and in terms of fundamental purpose. However, in the field of contemporary contemporary architecture, it can also be applied in some cases and finds an applied aspect. For the purpose of the study, conventional methods of collecting information, such as documents and fieldwork, have been used. In the section of library studies, the theoretical foundations of the subject under discussion are discussed, and the concept of home and residence, the architecture of space architecture of Iran and the organization of space in traditional homes have been extracted. Then its representation in the spatial structure of the historical house of Semnan literature has been discussed. In this section, in the quantitative analysis section, the data from the explanatory diagrams of space syntax and the Depthmap software are used to extract the findings. Finally, the findings are analyzed by the qualitative method of logical reasoning Is located.
Finally, the multi-criteria decision making method of topsis has been used to prioritize the factors affecting the space constraints.
Traditional Iranian homes that are abundant throughout the country have been formed during the rule of Iranian-Islamic native culture and customs. These houses are the sanctuaries of peace and tranquility and paradise of Iranian Muslim people. In contemporary times, with the rule of modernity and the domination of the Western culture, the houses changed and the dynamics of the construction of traditional houses was discontinued. This research seeks to identify the factors influencing the design and construction of the house by examining the traditional houses and recreating the thought of the architect in the design of these houses. For this purpose, library experts and field observations were referred to the experts and their views on this subject were presented in the framework of the TOPSIS assessment methodology. What is obtained from the analysis indicates that the traditional architect has considered the following factors in order of importance: 1) dynamism, 2) confidentiality, 3) context and context, 4) construction and orientation, 5) geometry, and 6) Spatial species. He also prioritized the necessary premises for houses and included in the design of the vestibule, the entrance of the summer and winter space, the yard, the guest house, the furnishings, the service and the warehouse. Although there are some differences in the life style of today’s generations with previous generations, and consequently the architecture of traditional houses of the same shape and dimensions is not suited to today’s life, but in the design of traditional Iranian homes, there are valuable points of view It is possible to inspire them, using these factors and observing the design of traditional architecture, to upgrade the architecture of contemporary houses and to create a sense of belonging and calm in contemporary homes.