عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the important sites of the Seleucid period in Iran is Laodicea in Hamadan province. This site was subjected to systematic survey and archaeological excavations during the years 2004, 2010 and 2021; A part of the cultural data of the excavation determined that the site was reused in the later especially the Islamic periods. In this article, Islamic glazed pottery obtained from three seasons of archaeological excavations has been carefully studied and a comprehensive classification has been prepared. Considering that the importance of the site was more in the historical period, conducting this research can help in clarifying the status of the site in the Islamic period as well as the position of Hamedan in the production of medieval Islamic period. The present research has been done by field studies (description, photography, design, classification and typology) and library studies (comparative studies and relative chronology). The results of the research show that this region was of special importance in the medieval Islamic period due to its location on the highway from Baghdad to Khorasan, and this factor caused the creation of many cultural connections with other regions, the evidence of which has appeared in the characteristic pottery of this region.
Keywords: Ilkhanid Pottery, Laodice of Nahavand, Blue Glazed Pottery, Typology, Cultural Relations.
Nahavand city is located in a fertile plain in Hamadan province. Due to having suitable environmental conditions, this region has been inhabited in different cultural periods (Ghirshman, 1994: 63), which Its evidence has been identified in the sites that include settlements from the 5th and 6th millennia BC to the Median period, such as Tepeh Giyan, Abdul Hossein, Jamshidi, and Zaramin (Irandoost, 2000: 145-146).
In the Islamic period, Nahavand region had an important position due to its locating on the communication route between Great Khorasan and Baghdad, and it received many influences from the surrounding regions. Despite its great importance in the archaeological studies of the Islamic period, especially the medieval period, it has received less attention. Our information about the pottery of the Islamic medieval periods in the western region of Iran is limited to the findings of Arzanfud in Hamedan (Zarei et al., 2016).
This region has always been of interest throughout history, from prehistory to historical and Islamic periods, and due to its proximity to Hegmataneh, it has had a special place in history (Jahanpour, 2008: 225). Based on archaeological evidence from the Islamic period, there is no doubt that Nahavand was very important and prestigious during the Ilkhanate period.
However, there is not much information about the state of pottery in the Islamic Middle Ages in the western Iran, especially in Hamedan province; For this reason, in this article, the Seljuk and Ilkhanate pottery obtained from the excavations of the Laodicea temple, which is among the important cultural materials in archaeological studies, were studied and classified. Certainly, conducting this research will be useful and effective in increasing the archaeological knowledge of Hamedan pottery in the Islamic period.
The main goal of this research is to study the Ilkhanate pottery in the Laodicea temple in Nahavand to identify the style and find out the state of pottery in this region. The analysis of statistical reports shows that the pottery industry among Nahavand inhabitant was in a favorable condition during the Ilkhanate period, and most of the pottery had good quality in terms of the degree of firing and compaction of the paste. Also, the typological comparison confirms the existence of connection with major pottery centers, especially in the neighboring areas.
The site of Laodiseh is located in Nahavand city in Hamedan province. This site is located in Do-khahaaran neighborhood. For the first time in 1953, an inscription in Greek language was accidentally discovered in this neighborhood, and the results of studies on it showed that the inscription had belonged to a Greek temple (Laodice) (Hakmi, 1958 A: 8; Godar, 1958: 206). Although the exact location of the temple of Laodicea has not been determined yet, the translation of this inscription has provided researchers with interesting information. Among other things, the city of Nahavand was called Laodicea during the time of the Seleucids and had several temples, and the largest temple of this city was also named Laodicea (Hakmi, 1958: 8)
The Ilkhanate period pottery obtained from the Laodicea site during the 3 seasons of archaeological research conducted in the Laodicea site during 2005, 2011 and 2012 can be classified into the following groups:
1. Pottery with underglaze painting decoration technique: which includes black on blue pottery, Sultan Abad pottery (Karimi & Kiani, 2006: 44, 63) and polychrome painted under the glaze pottery, which is relatively rare compared to other types (Dimand, 1986: 188, 66; Hall, 2015: 166).
2. Pottery with the painting on the glaze technique, which can be divided into three groups: lusterware and so- called azure and Mina’i pottery (Tohidi, 1999: 273).
3. monochrome pottery that can be divided into three groups: plain monochrome pottery, often in turquoise, blue, and azure colors (Khalili, 1995: 161), monochrome pottery with relief and molded decoration, and celadon pottery (1973: 125; Fehervari, 172: 1973, Hetijens Museum).
During the three seasons of excavation in Laodicea site, Islamic glazed pottery including black on blue painted pottery , Sultan Abad pottery, plain monochrome glazed pottery, pottery so -called “polychrome painted under the glaze pottery “, monochrome glazed pottery, luster were, several tallow lamps belonging to the medieval Islamic period, sgraffito pottery and also a number of historic period pottery were obtained, among which the prominent pottery of the Ilkhanate period pottery such as black on blue pottery , Sultan Abad pottery, plain monochrome glazed pottery, monochrome glazed pottery with relief decoration, pottery so-called polychrome painted under the glaze pottery and lusterware were studied.
Throughout history, Nahavand city has always had an important position due to its location in strategic especially due to its locating on the highway from Baghdad to Khorasan.
Studies have shown that about 90% of potteries are wheel-made with fine and coarse mineral mix with small amount of herbal temper.
About 98% of the potteries have good and proper firing, which shows the control on the furnace heat. 30% of Nahavand Ilkhanate potteries are glazed and the most glaze color is blue.
The main examples of pottery obtained from these excavations are types of pottery with a monochrome glaze used by the common people and the so-called popular pottery of this era. In the Ilkhanate period, lusterwares, mina ‘I, celadon and blue-white pottery, which are the characteristics of this period and probably related to the rulers were not found in this region. According to the evidence and comparative research done with other areas such as Takht-e Suleiman, Soltanieh (North Gate, Juma Mosque lands), Saveh (Zarandiyeh), Ray and Neishabur, it is concluded that Laodicea has the greatest affinity with Soltaniyeh, Ray and Neishabur. In terms of quality, it has been decorated and glazed. Therefore, it has had the most cultural relations with the mentioned areas.