عنوان مقاله [English]
Castles are strong and secure monuments built in the past on important points and roads. The geographical location of South Khorasan province in terms of natural features such as mountain ranges and low plains, has given a special identity to this region and the drought and the environment has created political instability, thereby creating a security architecture and aqueducts to adapt to the environment. Dastgerdan section is located in the western geographical area of South Khorasan province and due to special geographical Such as being located on the edge of the Lut Desert and being far from major urban and service centers, it has become an inaccessible area from government centers during various historical periods, it has many architectural works. In the archaeological survey of Dastgardan Tabas in 2015, castles from the Late Seljuk to early Pahlavi period have been identified that have not yet been studied the structure and function of each. It should be noted that the method of building castles in the region has influenced the architectural style of many buildings in this region, such as the use of towers and high fences. This paper is a descriptive-analytical approach based and it has been done by conducting field activities and referring to library sources such as historical sources of the Islamic period to explain and answer this question; Typology of castle architecture of Dastgerdan, based on performance and how the elements to be evaluated? Therefore, in this paper, it is attempted to analyze the important factors and factors in the formation of castles in the Dardgardan area. The purpose of this study is to know and study the physical structure of the architecture of Tabas Dastgerdan castles, their typology and chronology. A study of security buildings in the area shows, climatic conditions with vast desert areas and high places of refuge and socio-political developments due to the location of communication routes with the eastern borders and the vulnerability of the region during enemy attacks, as well as the distance from urban areas and the absence of a central government. The formation of the security architecture structure of the Dastgerdan section of Tabas has been influential in the Islamic period. The results indicate that security perception is one of the most influential concepts in shaping the fortresses of the area.
Keywords: Castles, Architectural Structure, Function and Typology, Dastgardan Tabas.
The castle is one of the important biological centers known for its defensive elements. “The existence of safe havens, shelters and people’s resistance against foreign attacks should be considered as factors that have given cities a defensive role and put people together to counter and repel enemy attacks” (Shia, 2003: 11). Dastgardan section is located in the western geographical area of South Khorasan province. Among the architectural works left in Dastgardan, castles show more abundance. Castles are safe and strong structures that were built at key points and crossings. Hence, the geographical features of Dastgardan show that this area was located in the past, on the edge of Lut desert and eastern communication routes, and this situation has created special strategic conditions for it with political and social structure in the form of independent sovereignty and peasant rural population. By referring to the historical sources of the Islamic period (Hafez Abro, 1373: 1261), it can be seen that the Dastgardan region was located in the Qohestan area. Among the eastern regions of Iran, “Qohestan has characteristics that distinguish it from other neighboring regions throughout history, including its proximity to the eastern borders, its remoteness, and then its political isolation” (Daftari, 1996: 402). Due to the geographical location of the desert, the remoteness of the region has a direct impact on the process of the architectural structure of the region, and as a result, the most abundant architectural structures in the form of castles and towers have a security effect. As more than 18 healthy and semi-healthy castles have been identified in Dastgardan in the period from the late Seljuk period to the Qajar period and in this article 15 scientific studies have been studied. There were several other castles in this area that have been completely leveled today and only their names remain. The architecture of these structures is based on indigenous materials such as clay and stratification, in accordance with the climate of desert areas. Security is one of the most important concepts in shaping the body of castles in Dastgardan region. Common elements in Dastgardan security architecture such as tall and thick fences, cylindrical or conical towers, one or more gates and sometimes with a moat around the building are displayed. Many of the names and titles of the castles are derived from the name of the village in which they are located, and others belong to one or more of the owners of the building.
Typology and Functions of Dastgerdan Castles
Looking at the division of types of defense fortifications based on climate (Sotoudeh, 1362: 14 and Pazuki-Troudi, 1376: 161), the castles of Dastgerdan region in two groups; A- Mountainous and B- Plain fortifications are divided. In general, the morphology of the fortifications of Dastgardan region in four groups; 1- Towers, 2- Mountain castles 3- Rural castles 4- Intermediate forts which are jointly understood with the two uses of Rabat and Qala. The effects of passive defense in the construction of Dastgardan and Abkhorg forts, which are evidence of the use of these two buildings in the Seljuk period, are more recognizable than other forts. In the discussion of the typology of castles in the region, the castle-village species can be seen in two villages of Dastgardan. According to surveys and aerial images, the two half-ruined castles are located near the villages of Dastgardan and Hodar. Arbab-serf castles can be seen in Dehkavir castles, Fathabad. The function of Abedi and Seyedi castles was to store grain in the village. He placed the two forts of Deh Mohammad and Pashnehdaran in the group of military forts.
The importance and extent of each of the Dastgardan castles, depending on the climatic, political and social conditions, differ in design, materials, fortifications, number of towers and the size of each in the village. By simple definition, geographical conditions show structural differences in the design and type of materials of the mountain castle compared to the plains in the plain. Therefore, castles built on the plains are less strong. Also, from a social point of view, the proximity of some castles next to each other has increased the intensity of security in some villages and the face of rural development has changed based on the construction of different types of castles in the region. This is directly related to the numerous attacks of local invaders and insurgents in the eastern and border regions of Iran. In the forts of Dastgardan, the daughter of Abkhorg and Robat-e Deh Mohammad, the passive defense feature with large circular towers, a strong fence, a ditch and a lightning rod has made the necessary arrangements to stop the attacks of the enemies. This feature has affected the function of different types of castles in this area by analyzing and comparing the building elements such as towers, gates, spaces inside the castle, and how water is stored.