عنوان مقاله [English]
Based on historical documents, “Khān Lanjān” was one of the ancient and peripheral settlements in south of Isfahān city that had flourished as an Islamic town in the center of “Alanjān Rostaq” or Lanjān district from the early Islamic to 7th century AH. Despite the importance of Khān Lanjān town, most prior researchers have focused on the Khān Lanjān mountainous fortress and there are still some ambiguities about the Khān Lanjān town’s location and military, economic and social structure and also decline factors.While investigation of the characteristics of Khān Lanjān town as a case study of surrounding settlements can be used as a model for study and analyze of these kinds of Islamic settlements in Iran. Hence the present paper try to examine structure and evolutions of this town by using data obtained from written sources, archaeological survey and remote sensing and by a descriptive-analytical method. Moreover, it has been attempted to suggest the location and approximate extent of Khān Lanjān town. The results show that contrary to previous studies, Khān Lanjān town did not correspond to the Firūzān town’s location and it was located in the south of Qaleh Bozi mountain where environmental potentials and strategic location, such as direct access to Zāyandeh rūd water and ancient routes of Fars and Bakhtiari and also adjacent to Khān Lanjān mountainous castle, had an effective role in growth and prosperity of this town from agricultural, commercial and defensive aspects. According to the theory of “urban network”, Khān Lanjān town was considered as a subordinate of Isfahan city from political dimension during its life, but in the regional level of Lanjān district, this town had a central role and has involved in the management of surrounding micro and macro scale settlements. The destruction Khān Lanjān fortification and the selection of Firūzān as the center of Lanjān district in the Il-Khānid period were main agents in gradual decline of Khān Lanjān town.
Keywords: Isfahān, Alanjān Rostaq, Khān Lanjān Town, Zāyandehrūd River, Urban Network.
Many researchers have focused on the types of Islamic settlements and offered different opinions in this field. It is clear that all settlements have not been created under same factors and in each case, political, military and economic equations have had special effects in Islamic settlements creation, extent and reputation. However, to ease management and administrative affairs, there was a kind of hierarchy for human settlements in the Islamic world. One of the valid written sources in this field is the book of Ahsan Al-Taqāsim fi Marifat al-Aqalim by al-Muqaddasi (4th/10thcentury) which based on general criteria, classified Islamic settlements into 5 groups: first, “Mesr” or megacity, second,”Qasabah” or the state capital, third, “Madinah” or town, fourth “District” or rural areas and finally “Den” or village.
The Khān Lanjān settlement which is the subject of this paper, during its life was considered as a “Madinah” or “town” in the center of the “Alanjan district” but politically was one of the subordinates of Isfahan “Qasbeh”.
Le Strange introduced Khān Lanjān town just based on written sources and he believed that the location of Khān Lanjān correspond to the Firuzan, an Il-Khanid town in the north of Qaleh Bozin mountain (Le Strange,1905). Then, Stern one of the first researchers who attempted to study Islamic cities using historical data and archaeological evidences surveyed this site in 1965. He suggested that the possible location of Khān Lanjān town was in the north of Khān Lanjān castle and around the current Felavarjān city (Stern, 1971: 46). However, there are still questions and ambiguities about the Khān Lanjān town place in the Lanjan region, its spatial extent and also factors affecting growth and decline of this settlement. Answering to the raised questions and studying the Khān Lanjān town as a case study of settlements around large cities(such as Isfahan) with agricultural economics can be used as a suitable model for investigation and analysis of these types of settlements in Iran during the early and medieval Islamic period.
Accordingly, the Objectives of This Paper Are
Recognizing main agents in development and then gradual decline of Khān Lanjān town. 2. Proposing the approximate location and extent of Khān Lanjān town. 3. Study of the Khān Lanjān town place at the micro level and among the settlements in Lanjān district and at the macro level and in relation to the Isfahan city.
Based on mentioned goals, the authors intend to prove the claim that Khān Lanjān located in the south of Qala-e-Bezi Mountain and environmental potentials and strategic location led to selection of this town as a military, commercial and cultural center in Alanjān Rostaq before the Il-khanid rule in 7th/13th century. It has been attempted to study Khān Lanjān town using data obtained from written sources, archaeological survey in 2015 and remote sensing methods.
The results show that Khān Lanjān town did not correspond to Firūzān and it was located in the South of Qaleh Bozi Mountain. Some facilities in this place, such as access to permanent Source of Zāyandeh rūd water and Fars and Bakhtiari ancient routes and also adjacent to Khān Lanjān mountainous fortress had an effective role in growth and prosperity of Khān Lanjān town. The destruction of the mountainous Khān Lanjān fortification and development of the Il-khnid town, Firūzān in the north of Qala-e-Bazi mountain are the main causes of Khān Lanjān town town decline.