عنوان مقاله [English]
The city of Soltanieh was built in 703 to 716 AH, thirty kilometers southeast of Zanjan city, as the political center, the capital of the Mogul Ilkhan sultanate. In addition to the capital and its political issues, Soltanieh’s historical value reflects the tremendous advancement of architecture in the Islamic era, where various public and private buildings have been constructed. Mausoleum architecture is one of the most important manifestations of Iranian and Islamic architectural art. In the 8th/10th century, several historical religious monuments were constructed which are known as “tomb towers” in Iranian architectural culture. Tappeh Noor, one of the largest ancient hills of Soltanieh plain, is located 1500 meters south of soltanieh dome. Tappeh-e-Noor is one of the most important places containing information about the Mogul Ilkhan period. Excavation was carried out in October 2009 in The Central Light Hill and focused on showing architectural works. The results of the excavation led to the identification of the tomb tower related to the Ilkhanid period. In this study, we tried to present the results of exploration, architectural structural analysis and its chronology. Data collection was done based on field and library methods. Excavation of this site led to the identification of the tomb tower from the Ilkhanid period. First, the interior of the dome space is constructed with stone carcasses and chalk mortar in the form of a cruciferous, along with an atrium-like entrance and a dome stem that is not currently available. This area is architecturally and decorated with the tombs of Qom’s Green Dome Garden (Khajeh Ali Safi, North Dome and Khajeh Asil al-Din Tomb) and Azerbaijani Tomb Tower (Three Domes of Urmia, Burgundy Dome of Maragheh), Baba Hossein Malayer Tomb Tower, Imamzadeh Hood Tomb Tower in Jezin Hamedan, etc. Comparison.
Keywords: Soltanieh, Tomb, Tappeh-e-Noor Enclosure, Archaeological Findings.
Zanjan province, due to the special geographical location in the Islamic era, especially the Ilkhan era, is one of the important social and cultural political centers. Soltanieh city was constructed 30 kilometers from Zanjan, a connection between the northwest and other parts of the country, along with the main route of the Silk Road. Before Islam, the Sultania plain also had signs of life and civilization.Prehistory periods (old bronze), history (Mad, Parthian, Sassanid) have been considered. Archaeological evidence shows that since the fifth millennium 2001, the pottery obtained from The Hill of Light in the southeast of the old city of Soltanieh indicates this (Mirtah, 1991:156). The first archaeological surveys during Wolfram Kleiss’s visit to the Sultania Plain between 1968 and1984. (Kleiss,1997:386). Mausoleums in Soltanieh in the past decades have been destroyed and then refurbished and others buried in the heart of the soil after destruction are the most prominent of these buildings: 1- Chelpioglu tomb 2- Tomb of Mulla Hassan Kashi 3- Kaboud Dome and Central Light Hill which was archaeologically explored in 2009 under the supervision of Abdolreza Mohajerinejad. And the tomb tower of the Ilkhan period was found. In order to gain more knowledge of the tomb buildings of the Ilkhan period. In this research, the main objectives of this study are to present the results of the exploration report and discuss the obtained architectural analysis and its chronology.
Materials and Methods: The data collection of this research is based on field method and library data collection, and descriptive-analytical method.
Research Background: The first archaeological surveys of the Sultania plain of Wolfram Kleis between 1968 and 1984 (Kleiss, 1997: 357,386). The beginning of archaeological studies and researches of Tappeh-e-Noor was conducted in 1971 by Dr. Saeed Ganjavi in The Central Hill. (Ganjavi, 1976: 166). Then, with the beginning of archaeological activities after the Islamic Revolution and Dr. Mirtah’s presence in soltanieh excavations, they conducted two seasons of exploration in 1989 and 1988 on the slopes south of The Central Light Hill (Mirtah, 1990 and 1995). In July 2009, the privacy of Tappeh-e-Noor area was determined by Abdolreza Mohajerinejad.
Explore Method: First, the site mapping was carried out on a scale of 1.2000 and 1.500 and divided into four houses 100×100 meters, and then the points to be explored were divided into 10×10 squares, which ultimately included 17 trenches. Recording and recording data and describing the works of locomose-locos study.
The Main Architectural Spaces of the Central Light Hill Tomb: The Main Architectural Spaces of the Central Light Hill Tomb
First place: The environment of the first row is 84 meters and its height is 130 cm, this office is formed with carcass materials of stone and green carved stones (tofite) that the carcasses of rocks are located under the tofite stones in two reg. Each office has twelve sides that decorate and façade with green stones (tofite), which this type of 12-sided plan can be seen in other Islamic buildings, especially the tower of Ilkhanid tombs.
Second Place: Form, shape, façade, decoration, materials and mortar used in office number one and two are similar and the difference is only in dimensions, size and environment (page number two on page one). Its environment is 64 meters, which like Soffeh No. 1 has twelve sides and appendages as façade, which is located inside the 12-sided plan of Soffeh No. 1 and has become narrower. Its diameter and width are also 450 cm.
Third Place: Soffeh No. 3 of the stem and the body of the dome which is located on the second row and only traces of bricks remain.
According to the available evidences, its diameter may be 16 meters in the form of cylindrical_A and due to the diameter of the 9-meter span of the pattaghs, it seems that its height is probably 18 meters. Wolfram Kleis compared the architecture of Tappeh-e-Noor to the architecture of the Dome of Qaboos voshmgir (kleiss,1997), Such a similarity that Klais does not make sense with the Qaboos Voshmgir Tower and the design he presented for the Hill of Light. The Klais design in the stem and body of the dome is grooved, the decorations of the artifact cannot be installed and designed in the groove of the body and stem of the dome (Mohajerinejad, 2009: 186).
After completing the exploration of the central light hill, a tomb tower with a twelve-sided plan was identified. The tomb consists of 3 offices with stone structures in variable sizes and dimensions that are narrower from the bottom up. Twelve-sided exterior plan and inside the tomb are faced with cruciferous space.The tomb of Tappeh Noor is architecturally similar to the tombs of the Ilkhanid period, with this difference, the tomb of Tappeh-e-Noor is built from the materials of stone and stone carcasses. During the exploration of some spaces with simple glazed bricks in turquoise color and with dimensions of 6cm 6×6×20 and stained bricks, with azure glaze on them with white glaze and various motifs with geometric designs (quadrilateral, quadrant, circular), plant, (flower, four leaves, octopus flower, etc.) The inscription (the design of the four alis) was decorated. Examples of building decorations in Ilkhanid buildings in Soltanieh plain, Hamedan, West Azerbaijan, etc. Observed.The findings of pottery obtained from exploration, simple and stained glazed pottery, in terms of role including the role of stump, geometric under glaze, painting on glaze, of common decorations in the pottery collection, the role of esgraphia, highlights and glazed stained (turquoise black pen and molded and compressive type, etc.