مسجد تاریخی سنگ بست برگی نو از معماری غزنوی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشــجوی دکتــری باستان شناســی، واحــد علـوم و تحقیقـات دانشـگاه آزاد اسـلامی، تهـران،ایــران.

2 اســتادیار گــروه باستان شناســی، واحــد ابهــر،دانشــگاه آزاد اســلامی، ابهــر، ایــران.

3 دانشـیار گروه باسـتان شناسـی دوران اسلامی،پژوهشـکدۀ باسـتان شناسـی، پژوهشـگاه میـراث فرهنگـی و گردشـگری تهـران، ایـران.

10.22084/nbsh.2019.17240.1807

چکیده

شهر تاریخی سنگ‌بست در مجاورت روستای سنگ‌بست در شمال فریمان واقع شده است. با عنایت به ارزشمند بودن این مجموعۀ تاریخی، این نخستین پژوهش نظام‌مند باستان‌شناسی است که تاکنون انجام پذیرفته است. اهمیت و وسعت محوطه ایجاب می‌کند که انجام پژوهش باستان‌شناسی در یک بنای مشخص از این مجموعۀ وسیع، با هدف معلوم انجام شود؛ بنابراین، مهم‌ترین بنای این شهر منحصربه‌فرد تاریخی، یعنی مسجد جهت انجام گمانه‌زنی جهت بررسی ویژگی‌های معماری آن انتخاب گردید. طبق شواهد و اطلاعات موجود در متون تاریخی این مسجد در زمانی ساخته شده است که سبک معماری خراسانی رو به افول و سبک معماری ایرانیِ رازی رو به گسترش بود؛ لذا ضرورت داشت به این پرسش پاسخ داده شود که مسجد سنگ‌بست با تفکر معماری شیوۀ خراسانی ساخته شده یا شیوۀ رازی؟ و یا ترکیبی از هر دو سبک در آن اجرا شده است؟ این پژوهش به روش توصیفی تاریخی-تحلیلی، مبتنی‌بر کاوش‌های باستان‌شناسی و مستندات و مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای انجام شده است؛ گمانه‌های واقع‌در ضلع جنوبی و قبلۀ مسجد نشان‌داد مسجد مذکور دارای یک ایوان با جرزهای قطور و رفیع و شبستانی در طرفین آن است. در مقابل محراب، منبر مسجد قرار دارد که احتمالاً منبر قرون اولیۀ اسلام تخریب شده و در قرن 8ه‍.ق. منبری جدید با مصالح آجر و گچ ساخته شده است. به‌نظر می‌رسد مسجد تاریخی سنگ‌بست تا اوایل دورۀ صفوی که رو به افول گذاشته، بارها مرمت شده است. ویژگی‌های معماری پلان بنا نشان می‌دهد که شباهت به آثار شیوۀ خراسانی دارد، اما تزئینات کتیبه‌های کوفی گچ‌بری، و کوفی آجرتراشی، تعیین‌کنندۀ اصالت معماری ایرانی سبک رازی است؛ لذا می‌توان مسجد تاریخی سنگ‌بست را بنایی از دوران گذر از معماری سبک خراسانی به رازی دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Historical Mosque of Sangbast, A New Leaf of Ghaznavid Architecture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Abbaszadeh 1
  • Hayedeh Khamseh 2
  • Mohammad Mortezaei 3
1 PhD student in Archeology, Science and Research Unit, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Archeology, Abhar Unit, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Archeology, Islamic Period, Archaeological Research Institute, Cultural Heritage and Tourism Research Institute (RICHT), Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The historic city Sangbast is located near the village of Sangbast in the north of Fariman. Given the value of this historical complex, this is the first systematic archaeological research to be conducted to date. The importance and size of the site creates that archaeological research can be done in a specific building of this large complex with a specific purpose. Therefore, the most important building of this unique historical city, namely the mosque, was selected to conduct speculation to study its architectural features. According to the evidence and information in the historical texts, this mosque was built at a time when the Khorasanian architecture style was declining and the Razi Iranian architectural style was expanding. Therefore, it was necessary to answer the question whether the Sangbast mosque was built with the architectural thinking of Khorasanu style or Razi style? Or is a combination of both styles implemented in it? This research has done by descriptive-historical-analytical method based on archeological excavations and library documents and studies. Speculations located on the south side and the qibla of the mosque showed that the mosque has a porch with thick, high and naves on both sides. In front of the Mehrab, there is a pulpit of the mosque, which was probably destroyed in the earlt centuries of Islam, and in the 8th century AH, a new pulpit was built with bricks and plaster. It seems that the historic Sangbast mosque restored many times until the early Safavid period, when it was in decline. The architectural features of the building plan show that it is similar to the works of Khorasani style, but the historical mosque of Sangbast can be considered as a building from the tradition period from Khorasani to Razi style architecture.
Keywords: Sangbast, Fariman, Ghaznavid Architecture, Sangbast Mosque, Arsalan Jazeb.
 
Introduction
Iranian architecture underwent changes and transformations from the Ghaznavid period, and due to the political and social conditions of the country, it left its period of nature. This accelerated further during the region of Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavi. Architecture is fading under the influence of the Arabs in Iran and Iranians are looking at the historical and valuable architecture of the past to establish a new architecture and art that was based on the pillar of pre-Islamic Iranian architecture. The behavior of the Arab rulers caused the Iranian to use the potential and actual talents of Iran in the service of the growth and development of Islam by preserving the heavenly religion of Islam. This research was conducted with multiple objectives and to answer the questions that are mentioned below. Archaeological studies in the field of architecture of the Ghaznavid period and the fourth century AH in learn are very few and almost zero. Since the results of archaeological studies are undoubtedly the most documented information in general knowledge in all historical fields and complement historical information and written sources, conducting this research by exploring archeology leads us to the desired goals. The first purpose of this study is to obtain more complete information about the architecture of the Ghaznavid period, which has so far received less attention and no action has been taken in this regard. The second goal is to check the authenticity of this mosque to the end of the fourth century AH, which Arsalan Jazeb the ruler of Khorasan to build.
 
Geographical Location of Fariman Sangbast
Sangbast village is located in the north of Fariman city, at a distance of 37 km from the city center, with a longitude of “33,0059’35 and a latitude of “43,16’46’59 and an altitude of 1115 meters above sea level (Figure2). According to the historians and travel writers of the Islamic Middle Ages, Sangbast was the crossing point of trade caravans and a famous house between Neishabour and Sarakhs (Sam’ani, 1382, 259, Hamavi, 1356, 112, Zahiri Neyshabouri, 1332:13, Ibn Athir, 1372, 146, Zahabi, Bita, 388.
 
The Historical Complex of Sangbast
Sangbast historical complex in terms of its special geographical location has always been inhabited during the Islamic period, however, the historical ups and downs and the positive and negative events that Irab has always faced have a special role in this issue. But throughout history, there has always been communication, and Sangbast has had a special place along the Silk Road. The passage of time and various factors that, of course, should not be ignored due to climate change, have caused the relocation of the Sangbast historical complex. Today, from superficial evidence we see three different parts of Sabgbast.
 
Conclusion
The study and research in historical city of Sangbast shows that it has always been considered during the Islamic era and has enjoyed a special prosperity at the crossroads of the east-west and north-south communication highways. The mosque of this city, as the most important building of this complex and the representative of Ghaznavid architecture, provides valuable information. The mosque was built based on historical texts and archaeological evidence in the late fourth and early fifth centuries AH. Due to the destruction that took place in the later centuries and after the abandonment of the mosque, it is difficult to distinguish whether the mosque was built in the form of Khorasani style or Razi style; however, the plan of the nave , the simplicity of the building and the existence of the minaret outside the central courtyard( south corner) indicate the characteristics of Khorasani style architecture, but at the same time, the evidence obtained from the decoration of the beginning of fundamental changes and transformations, among the obvious changes are the presence of a porch on the side of the qibla and the addition of colorful bed decorations, murals, bed inscriptions and brickwork on the walls of the boiling. Since the Khorasani style was formed and grew in Greater Khorasan, the change in this style probably started from the same area, therefore, Sangbast Mosque has been one of the pioneers of these changes due to its location and strategic importance. Considering the centrality of the cities of Ghazneh and Balkh in the Ghaznavid period and the glorious period of the role of Sultan Mahmud, a lot of similarities can be seen in the bed decorations of the mosques of these cities with the decotations of the Sangbast mosque. One of the prominent patterns in the decoration of mosques in this region during the Ghaznavid period was the nine-dome mosque in Balkh. Therefore, it can be said that in the early fifth century AH in Khoradan, the change in the architectural elements of mosques began and gradually spread to other parts of the country.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sangbast
  • Fariman
  • Ghaznavid Architecture
  • Sangbast Mosque
  • Arsalan Jazeb
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