نقش نورون های آیینه ایی در تحولات فرهنگی دالما: ارائه یک مدل شناختی برای اولویت اجرای تقارن در جوامع انسانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر پسادکتری، گروه باستان شناسی، دانشکدۀ علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه باستان شناسی، دانشکدۀ علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

فرهنگ‌های مختلف الگوهای متفاوتی برای منقوش کردن سطوح تزئینی خود به‌کار می‌برند، بنابراین اولویت استفاده از الگوهای مختلف در فرهنگ‌ها متفاوت است و این اولویت‌ها به تابعیت از تماس‌های فرهنگی و یا تغییر زیرساخت‌های اجتماعی، دچار تغییر خواهند شد. این کلیتِ نظریۀ مرتبط بامطالعۀ الگوهای تقارن در فرهنگ‌ها است که سال‌ها توسط انسان‌شناسان و باستان‌شناسان در فرهنگ‌ها و طرح‌های مختلف آزموده شده‌ و مقالات گوناگونی در تأیید آن به‌چاپ رسیده است. به‌نظر می‌رسد تقارن برای فرهنگ به‌مثابۀ ژن‌های وراثتی برای انسان باشد؛ همان‌طورکه انسان ازطریق ژن صفات خود را به‌نسل بعد منتقل می‌کند، فرهنگ هم ازطریق تقارن ویژگی‌ها و اندوخته‌هایش را به‌نسل‌های بعدی همان فرهنگ منتقل می‌کند و هم‌چنان‌که صفات ژنی والدین در فرزند به‌خوبی  بروز می‌کند، ویژگی‌ها و تغییر و تحولات فرهنگ‌ها را می‌توان ازطریق مطالعه و مقایسۀ الگوی تقارنی فرهنگ‌های درحال برهم‌کنش مشخص کرد.‌ اما مسأله‌ایی که تاکنون بدان پرداخته نشده، نقش فعالیت‌های شناختی انسان در این برهم‌کنش‌ها است؛ این‌که کدام تطورشناختی منجر به این ویژگی مهم فرهنگی  برای انسان امروزی شد. در این مقاله ضمن بررسی خاستگاه الگوهای تقارن فرهنگ پیچیدۀ دالما و تماس‌های فرهنگی مرتبط، درپی عامل شناختی تأثیرگذار بر ثبات و یا تغییر الگوهای تقارنی هستیم. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد ساختار نورون‌های آیینه‌ایی افراد در اولویت استفاده از تقارن نقش داشته، به‌طوری‌که در طی تماس‌های فرهنگی با روشن شدن نورون‌های آیینه‌ایی الگوهای رایج در سنت‌های فرهنگی دیگر مورد تقلید قرارگرفته و دچار اولویت می‌شوند. به‌طوری‌که در منطقۀ موردمطالعه، تماس‌های فرهنگی و به‌احتمال‌زیاد تجارت ابسیدین هم‌زمان با دورۀ فرهنگی دالما موجب تماس‌هایی بین شمال‌غرب ایران و فرهنگ‌های هم‌افق با آن در نواحی جنوبی قفقاز، شرق آناتولی و شمال بین‌النهرین شده و سبب رواج الگوی تقارنی موجود بر سفال حلف در مناطق داخلی ایران امروزی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Mirror Neurons in Dalma Cultural Developments: Provide a Cognitive Model for Prioritizing the Implementation of Symmetrical Patterns in Human Societies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasim Faizi 1
  • Hamed Vahdatinasab 2
1 Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract: Different cultures have various patterns for painting their decorative surfaces. Thus, preference for the use of various patterns is different in cultures, and these preferences are changed based on cultural relations or changing social substructures. This is the summary of symmetrical patterns theory in cultures that were tested by anthropologists and archaeologists for many years. Thus, symmetry has emerged as a powerful platform to understand the similarities and cultural differences between communities. It is believed that symmetry for a culture can be inherited like the human genes that are inherited from parents like the traits such as height and diseases; Cultural characteristics through symmetry can be transmitted to the next generation. But what is important to us is that so far researchers have not paid attention to the role of human cognition and cognitive activation in these interactions and preferences. In the paper, while studying the origin of the symmetrical patterns of complicated Dalma culture and associated cultural relations, we are looking for a cognitive factor that affects the stability or change of symmetrical patterns. The results show that the mirror neurons structure of an individual plays a vital role in preference for the use of a symmetrical pattern such that during cultural contacts, with the firing of mirror neurons, common patterns in a cultural tradition is imitated and prioritized. It means that unconsciously people show a preference for using such unfamiliar patterns. Accordingly, cultural contacts more possibility was as a result of trading, especially obsidian trading. Thus, such trading simultaneously with the Dalma cultural Period led to contact between northwestern Iran and its cultural horizon in the southern Caucasus, eastern Anatolia, and northern Mesopotamia. As a result of such connections, we witness the spread of the symmetrical pattern of the half pottery in the interior regions of modern Iran.
 
Introduction
Symmetry means dividing a shape or object into two equal parts so that the two sides are the same in every respect. However, symmetry is not limited to this definition. The motor behavior and regular repetition of a motif on the surface, regardless of its shape and type, is part of the concept of symmetry, which has entered studies related to culture to a new stage (Faizi & Vahdati Nasab, 1394). Symmetry is divided through mathematics into 1, 2, and 3 dimensions, while it, as biological and cognitive characteristics of human societies, has left a significant footprint. Anthropologically, symmetry is an important perceptual indicator that has evolved to understand a form and is closely related to the visual function of the brain (Hodgson, 2009). However, the patterns of symmetry created on the surface are the result of the cognitive activities of Homo sapiens sapiens (Wynn, 2002) On the other hand, there are neurons called mirror neurons in the human and ape brains that fire when a person is performing or watching action(Rizzolatti, 2005). These patterns makes the study of symmetry valuable in the analysis of culture and cultural interactions (Brainerd, 1942). From a pattern recognition point of view, archaeologists believe that the early use of symmetry varied in different cultures. It means that the patterns were exchanged between cultures through cultural contact unconsciously, and therefore their chronology is likely (Hann 2003a-c; Washburn & crow1998, 2004, crow 1998; Washburn, 1999). But despite its importance, up to now, little attention has been paid to symmetry in the archaeology of Iran and its nature remains unclear. The principal question of the present study is about cognitive and cerebral factors affecting the prioritization of different symmetries in different cultures. Assuming that human cognitive ability is the principal factor concerning the environment and creating the culture and cultural relationships, we seek to recognize these vital factors in these priorities. In this article, to present the cognitive model of the priority of using symmetry in each culture, while studying the symmetric mathematical model of the Dalma culture and its symmetrical relationship with neighboring cultures, the vision and cognitive principles of symmetry have been studied. It is necessary to explain that the reason for choosing Dalma culture is the complexity of chronology, the possible time gap between the Chalcolithic and the Hajji Firuz Neolithic culture, and insufficient knowledge of the Northwestern cultures in this period.
Dalma Tepe is located in the province of West Azerbaijan in the southwest of Lake Urmia. From layers 4 and 5 of this site, a remarkable collection of pottery has been obtained, which is different from the pottery of the previous period. These pottery are dated after the late Neolithic, Hajji Firuz, and the Middle chalcolithic, Pizdeli, in the Northwest. They are distributed in the first half of the fifth millennium and the second half of the fifth millennium in the Central Zagros. They are common pottery of the early chalcolithic and Middle Stone Ages (Abedi et al., 2015). Therefore, Dalma pottery is identified in the Northwest chronology with a time gap after Hajji Firuz and chronologically coincides with Obaid 3 in Mesopotamia (Rahimi Sorkhani & Eslami, 2018). In recent excavations in the region, this time gap has been filled, and Dava Göz Khoy1 has been identified as a transition period to Chalcolithic (Abedi et al., 2018). Contrary to Solecki’s opinion (1973), we believe that Dalma painted is not the result of Hajji Firuz’s painted style. These sherds are similar only in terms of available materials in the environment, and in the Dalma period geometric patterns are more complex and more regular due to the use of different symmetry.  According to the theory of systems, we do not consider any culture closed. On the other hand, according to the interaction theory, Dalma culture forms a subset of symmetrical patterns of Halaf. The strategic position of Solduz valley due to obsidian trade was the cause of such an interaction and effect. Accordingly, we claim that human mirror neurons in the Neolithic and chalcolithic were fired for both designers and observers when drawing symmetrical bands or two-dimensional patterns. Through these neurons, they transferred the symmetry of other cultures to their own subconsciously.
 
Conclusion
Unconscious activation of mirror neurons while watching a symmetrical pattern causes the patterns to shift from one culture to another or prioritize that pattern. It is the function of mirror neurons that causes different cultures to have varied priorities for painting their decorative surfaces. However, the most important features of mirror neurons are the same important features that are transmitted to individuals and cultures in contact with a culture when they view a symmetrical band or overall pattern. These characteristics include the possibility of unknowingly rapidly imitating a process, interpersonal differences in the performance of actions, and the effect of the environment on the performance of individuals. Therefore, we consider mirror neurons to be the main factor of the non-random distribution of symmetry priorities in cultures. As in this case study, the symmetry pattern of the common pottery tradition (Halaf) is imitated by Dalma pottery makers unconsciously during the cultural contact for obsidian exchange, with the unconscious firing of their mirror while looking at the painted pottery of Halaf culture. Accordingly, these patterns are transmitted based on the activity of mirror neurons and have spread over a wide area of the Northwest and Southwest of Iran during cultural contact.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • culture
  • Cognition
  • Symmetry
  • Mirror Neuron
  • Dalma
  • Pottery
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