عنوان مقاله [English]
Khuzestan plain in southwestern Iran is represented by two mountainous geographical regions and plain. During the Parthian period, we also saw the rise of the Elymaean in the mountainous regions and plains of Khuzestan. Glass was one of the industries that flourished during the Parthian period. Parthian glass is abundant in the plain and flat areas of Khuzestan, while in the mountainous areas only specimens are found in a few areas. The main purpose of this research is to investigate, introduce and analyze examples of objects and glass containers of the Parthian (Elymaean) glass obtained from archaeological excavations of the ancient area of Khuzestan mountainous areas such as: Bard-e-Neshandeh and Kal Chandar. The research questions are: Based on the findings of the mentioned glassware, were there any glass-making workshops in the area or were the glass objects imported? What is the method of making these glass objects? What are the common types of containers studied in this article and what kind of uses? The present study tries to provide a logical answer to the questions raised in this research by using descriptive-analytical and methodological data collection through library studies (including the use of books, reports and published articles). The results indicate that the glass findings of the Khuzestan mountainous areas are likely to be imported and cannot be produced locally. Most of the objects were manufactured by the blown technique, although they also used blown, compact, and mud molding techniques to make ornaments. The glass containers were mostly cups, but the containers for medicines, cosmetics, sugars and cups were also found. The glass findings also show that trade in this commodity and peaceful cultural relations have taken place alongside the military confrontations between Iran and Rome.
Based on ecological and natural geography studies, Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran is generally divided into two geographical parts. Its northern and eastern parts include mountainous areas and its western, central and southern parts include flat plains with rivers full of water. During the Parthian period, we are witnessing the rise to power and the presence of Elymaean tribes in the mountainous areas and plains of Khuzestan. In general, the Elymaean land included the eastern and northern parts of the ancient Elam region and the western slopes of the Bakhtiari Mountains. It seems that the Elymaean tribes lived in an area bounded on the east by Isfahan, on the south by Fars, on the west by Khuzestan, and on the north by the Medes, which were in fact on the communication routes of four important Province. Archaeological excavations in the plains and flat areas of Khuzestan, such as Shush (Susa), Saleh Davood, Gelalak and Dastva in Shushtar and the Parthian cemetery of Jobaji Ramhormoz, have found many Parthian glasses, while in mountainous areas only in a few areas Examples found.
The main purpose of this research is to investigate, introduce and analyze samples of glass objects and vessels of the Parthian (Elymaean) period that have been obtained from archaeological excavations of the ancient site of the mountainous regions of Khuzestan, namely the slave of Bard-e-Neshandeh of Masjed Soleiman and the Kal Chandar of Izeh. These sites have been explored by Girshman and Mehrkian for several seasons. Another purpose is to compare the glass data of these areas with other similar samples in other areas for detailed study and citation. The ultimate goal is to get more information about the Parthian glass industry in terms of manufacturing technique, decoration, type of use and commercial connections. Also, interpretive knowledge of the studied parts and understanding the evolution of the glass industry in these areas are other objectives of this research. The necessity of conducting this research is to know more about glass findings, commercial relations, existence of glass workshops and obtaining more information about their construction method, shape and decorations in this period.
Research questions include: Based on the above findings, were there any glass workshops in this area or are the glass objects imported? What is the method of making the mentioned glass objects? What are the common types of dishes studied in this article and what kind of use did they have? The present study tries to provide a logical answer to the questions raised in this research with a descriptive-analytical approach and data collection method through library studies (including the use of books, reports and articles).
It should be noted that the glass finds of the slave include pieces of pharmaceutical and cosmetic utensils, cups, jugs, jewelry, beads, spindles, figures and human motifs, toy objects, rings, and so on. While the glass works obtained from the Kal Chandar area only contain two special containers of drugs. In general, these works are made in a range of green colors, but there were other colored glasses such as azure, vegetable, black-brown, gray and cream. The technology of making and producing most of the mentioned objects has been free by blowing method, although they have also used blowing methods in molds, compressed molds and clay molds, which have been used to make jewelry. This shows that not only the old methods were not abandoned in this period, but along with the new innovation of glassmaking, ie the blowing method, other methods were also used to make the works. The decorations used on the glass are also interesting. Most of the decoration is related to the added strips that were placed horizontally, vertically, wavy and zigzag on the dishes. But decorations such as embossed ribbons, honeycomb carvings, feather-like patterns and embellishments are also other decorations used on glass objects. The glassware is often related to cups, but special containers for medicines, cosmetics, sachets and cups were also found. It should be noted that the artifacts found in terms of form and decoration are comparable with other ancient sites of the Parthian period in the plain of Khuzestan such as Shush (Susa), Saleh Davood, Gelalak, Dastva, Jobji and others. Similar samples of studied glass handicrafts have been found in other areas of the Iranian plateau such as Nahavand, Khark, Deilman, Gilan, Azerbaijan, etc. Similar examples have been found in other parts of Iran during the Parthian period and in neighboring areas such as Mesopotamia, the eastern Mediterranean, Armenia, Egypt, and Roman-controlled areas, showing trade in these goods and peaceful cultural relations alongside Iranian military conflicts and Rome has been established.
Archaeological findings prove that the glass industry has been prevalent in the Khuzestan plain for a long time and has maintained its evolution and progress over time. Samples were also imported from the western regions, both by land and sea. However, the results of this study indicate that the glass finds of the mountainous areas of Khuzestan (ie, slaves and whole herds) are most likely imported and cannot be produced on site. Most likely, these glass handicrafts were brought from neighboring areas in Khuzestan or from Mesopotamia. Because so far, the explorers have not found any signs of Parthian glass workshop in the mountainous areas of Khuzestan, nor have glass works been reported in other areas of these areas. While according to research, there was a glass workshop in Susa, which is part of the plain. This argument is based on the fact that the manufacture of glassware and glass workshops requires special industrial techniques and methods that no examples of such production workshops have been reported in the mountainous regions of Khuzestan. Also, according to the geographical conditions of the study area, the production and use of glassware, which is very fragile and expensive, has no so-called economic justification. The found samples were mostly used as decorative and luxurious dishes. On the other hand, in archeological excavations in Iran and Mesopotamia, glass finds related to the 1st to 3rd centuries AD and at the same time with the second half of the Parthian rule have been obtained, which shows the extent of the use of vessels, ornaments and other glass artifacts of this period. Most of these artifacts have been discovered in Parthian tombs.
It is necessary to mention at the end that at the same time with the Parthian period, we are witnessing the flourishing of the glass industry in a wide range of her rule, which had never been seen before. The glassmaking of this period experienced a renaissance as well as important changes that culminated with the invention of the tailpipe in the Syrian-Palestinian territories and the innovation of blown glass in the middle of the first century BC. The method of blowing made the art of glassmaking out of luxury and into mass production. Also, using this method, the variety of shapes and sizes of glass was increased.