عنوان مقاله [English]
Studies of historical written sources and matching with archeological evidence are one of the coherent scientific methods in archaeological studies of the Islamic era. The northwestern region of Iran, which was known as Azerbaijan in the Islamic era, has various works from the Islamic era. A large part of these works is standing, and some of them are not a trace of their architecture and physical structure today, and they are only mentioned in the texts and sources of the Islamic era. Among these works is the tomb of the 29th Min Caliph Abbasi, Mustarshid Ballah, whose location and location in Azarbaijan, Iran, has remained unknown until now. The location of this tomb is mentioned in different ways in the texts of the Islamic era. In these sources, its location is mostly stated in the village of Maragheh, however, the location of the tomb in Maragheh has been completely abandoned until today. The present research has been carried out in a descriptive-analytical way and based on library studies and the results of field investigations, in order to locate and identify the exact location of the tomb of Mustarshid Ballah, and in this regard, it is looking for a logical answer to the following questions: 1) Based on archaeological evidence and texts Historically, which of the neighborhoods of Maragheh city can be considered the tomb and burial place of the Abbasid Caliph? 2) What are the general evidences for locating the tomb of Mustarshid Ballah? The results obtained from the field data and archeological exploration and analysis of historical texts indicate the location of the tomb in the historical core of Maragheh, in Atabak neighborhood and next to the blue and round tomb towers.
The study of written historical sources and the comparison with archaeological evidence are among the coherent scientific methods in the archaeological studies of the Islamic period; And it plays an important role in recognizing cities, historical places and the functional nature of many architectural spaces. Among these, the study of finding the location of a historical monument is one of the fields of interest of researchers. The northwestern region of Iran, known as Azerbaijan during the Islamic era, has a variety of artifacts from the Islamic era. Many of these works are still standing and some of them are not traces of their architecture and physical structure today and have been mentioned only in texts and sources of the Islamic era. Among these works is the tomb of the 29th Abbasid caliph, Mustrashid Ballah, whose location and location in Azerbaijan, Iran, is still unknown. The location of this tomb is mentioned in various texts in the Islamic era. In these sources, its location is mostly mentioned in the city of Maragheh, however, the spatial existence of the tomb in Maragheh has been completely abandoned to this day.
The study of written historical sources about the location of urban spaces and historical monuments is one of the fields of interest for researchers. Locating historical sites in each period requires special methods for that period and that area. In the Islamic era, locating historical buildings, due to the large number of written historical sources and referring to some architectural spaces in these texts, is one of the scientific fields to achieve appropriate theoretical foundations about the nature of a historical building and locating some architectural spaces. In the absence of archaeological data, historical sources can provide valuable information on the basis of which historical sites can be located to some extent. The study of ancient texts and the tracing of historical writings through archaeological research has led to the discovery of the mysteries of many historical sites and the acquisition of valuable information. The northwestern region of Iran in the Islamic era is known by names such as Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan and Azerbaijanis. Many historical events of those cities have been mentioned many times in historical texts. One of the cities of this region, whose name is abundant in Islamic sources; The city is Maragheh. Historians and geographers of the Islamic period in their descriptions of the city of Maragheh, have made many references to its historical monuments and events. This city is based on the written historical texts of the burial place of people such as Amid al - Din Abu al - Fada’il Saeed bin Muhammad Baghdadi, Mohiyatuddin Muhammad bin Al - Arabi Ta’i Hatami, Mohiyya al - Din al - Maghribi, Aladdin Arsalan bin Korpe Mustrashid. Ballah was the 29 th Abbasid caliph, etc. The location of these burial buildings in Maragheh has not been determined yet. It should be noted that studies have been conducted to determine the location of the tomb of the Mustrashid. These researches have generally, due to a purely historical approach and the incompatibility of historical descriptions with cultural data, especially archaeological evidence, caused a mistake in the location of the tomb of Mustrashid. Ballah in the historical context of Maragheh; Therefore, the main issue of the present study is the exact location of the tomb of Mustrashid Abbas Ballah, Caliph 29 Abbasi, by achieving goals such as studying the historical context of Maragheh and identifying its old neighborhoods, the reason for the presence of Mustrashid Khalid in Maragheh, identifying the burial place and location of his tomb. The present research has been done in a descriptive - analytical manner and based on library studies and the results of field surveys, in order to locate and identify the exact location of the tomb of Mustrashid Balshid and in this regard seeks a logical answer to the following questions : A) According to archeological evidence and historical texts, which of the neighborhoods of Maragheh can be considered as the tomb and burial place of the Abbasid Caliph? B) What are the general evidences for locating the tomb of Mustrashid Ballah? The results obtained from field data and archaeological excavations and analysis of historical texts indicate the location of the tomb in the historical core of Maragheh, in the neighborhood of Atabak (Qozat) and next to the towers of blue and circular tombs.
Materials and Methods
Collection of information in the present study, in two ways : library (based on the study of ancient texts of the Islamic period, especially the Middle Ages, which are considered as the primary sources of this research ) and archaeological evidence (the results of excavations in the area of the blue and circular tombs of Maragheh) Done. In this regard, by choosing a descriptive-analytical method and matching the information left from written historical sources with the data obtained from the study and archaeological excavation of the historical context of Maragheh, an attempt has been made to finally identify and introduce the location of the tomb of Mustrashid Bellah abasi.
According to studies, the tomb of Mustrashid Ballah Abbasi was one of the ritual-burial spaces of Maragheh, which was built during the Seljuk period. In general, the surviving texts of medieval Islamic historians and geographers have written the location of the tomb of Mustrashid Abbasullah Abbasi in the Atabak neighborhood of Maragheh and inside the schoolyard. Atabak neighborhood has retained its former name to this day and its approximate range is still recognizable among the people of Maragheh. Atabak neighborhood is located in the area of Khajeh Nasir and Ouhadi streets, and today traces of Seljuk tombs remain in this area. In this neighborhood, religious buildings such as Atabaki Mosque (Shoja Al - Dawlah), Hojjat al-Salam Mosque (Shahidin / Zanjirli) and other historical mosques of the city have still maintained their existence despite significant changes. Based on the pottery found from the excavation of the tower of blue and circular tombs related to the early and middle centuries of Islam, it can be seen that the settlement in this area of the city has existed since the first centuries of Islam.
General evidence for locating the tomb of Khalifa Abbasi in this part of the city is the existence of five tombs from the Seljuk period, a historical school, a mosque and references to historical sources adjacent to this building in the neighborhood of Atabakiyeh; Thus, archaeological evidence and written historical sources show that the remains of one of the two tombs discovered from the Seljuk period in the area of the tower of the Seljuk tombs are blue and circular, the main location of the tomb of Khalifa Abbasi. This tomb is the oldest known tomb in Maragheh city; According to historical sources, it dates back to 530 AH.