عنوان مقاله [English]
Understanding the historic city of Tabriz, a city that has seen various governments and has always been a storehouse of Iranian architectural and urban artifacts, can help us gain useful information. The Bazaar of Tabriz as a vital element of the city has played a significant role in shaping its structure. The present study aims to create a context for reviewing and preserving the surviving works in the Bazaar of Tabriz which is essential to protect the urban structure. To identify the physical elements of the Bazaar, historical texts, documents and miniature map of Metraqchi as the only source of visualization of past architecture and urban design of Tabriz are used. On the other hand, the content and relation of Metraqchi’s maps with architectural and urban elements of Tabriz Bazaar are studied. Considering the above the research method is based on content analysis And from the interpretive-historical method based on the study of historical books And in this way, first the library information required in relation to the city of Tabriz and the historical bazaar, by referring to the libraries and reviewing the historical versions in Tabriz And citations of historical texts, travelogues of travelers, miniatures of Metraqchi, paintings and photographs collected, Then, with the interpretive-historical method, The writings are analyzed and the written and visual documents are compared. The results of studies include theoretical, written and visual information about the Bazaar and some of its important architectural elements, including Jahanshah (Blue) mosque, Ostad and Shagerd mosque, Jame mosque, Hajat mosque, Chahar Menar, Dal-Zal Tomb and Qaysariyeh Bazaar is presented in form of a table. The analysis is based on the current position of the building and its position on the existing maps and pictures. The description is based on the books and the features of the building in the Metraqchi’s maps.
The architectural and historical monuments of each city are like the identity card of that city and show the identity, antiquity and physical characteristics of that city, so with proper knowledge and analysis of historical monuments, good results can be obtained from the structure, political, and cultural features of a city. The spatial structure of the city of Tabriz, as one of the most important historical cities in Iran, is still in a state of ambiguity due to its location on the geographical-political borders, as well as the numerous earthquakes that have always plagued it. As in the contemporary architecture of Tabriz, not much information is available about how the spatial structure of Tabriz was. The Tabriz Bazaar is important as one of the influential elements in the spatial structure of Tabriz, and its presence is considered important in contemporary architecture. There are countless research methods to explore the former structure of the city of Tabriz. Hand-drawn maps as one of the most authoritative historical sources are the best method of obtaining information about building architecture and issues related to architecture such as materials, construction, antiquity, and social structure. Hand-drawn maps of the Ottoman painter, Nasuh Metraqchi, in this regard are among the first resources available to understand the architecture and history of Iranian cities. Nasuh Metraqchi was a relative of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman sultan, who accompanied him to Iran during the campaign between 940 and 942 A.H, and while preparing a report on this campaign, he drew pictures of important cities between these campaigns (Hanachi, 41, 1385). In these pictures, the details are shown according to their importance and the mapping method and it is quite meaningful. Besides, the artistic aspects of objects, architectural features, shapes, colors, etc. are drawn to reflect its characteristics, and this is very valuable (Zahed Salvi, 2017, 29). This hand-drawn map contains a new style compared to other paintings and depicts the architectural and structural features of a city. In this drawing, we will be able to identify and separate the buildings based on their use, antiquity, and location, and get a glimpse of what they were. Therefore, in this research, an attempt has been made to study and identify more information about the Metraqchi map, along with other historical documents to obtain appropriate information about Tabriz Bazaar.
The drawings fall into different categories and styles, including the schools of Shiraz, Herat, Tabriz, Qazvin, and Isfahan, which have aspects such as the type of drawing, design, and color composition used in the drawings. There are similarities and differences. In the meantime, Metraqchi’s hand-drawn map cannot be placed in any of these existing categories and has a completely different perspective from other drawings. Therefore, a separate category can be considered for it.
In the map drawn from Tabriz, the important monuments and buildings of a city and its connections are depicted, and in some cases, it also refers to the plant and animal species in the region. The use of special colors and drawings such as platforms, various types of roof coverings, etc. have shown the explicit and distinctive view of this painter in the architecture and urban planning of the city. In his maps, Metraqchi has depicted several cities on his way, among which Tabriz has a wider map with more details. The important buildings due to its geographical, political-governmental and religious position have been drawn with specific color principles and combinations. In these drawings, in addition to the features of urban planning and architecture of Tabriz, the vegetation and animal species of the region and the accesses are covered by Metraqchi. Metraqchi’s maps have a good view of Tabriz and depict most of the important buildings and elements. In the building, there are lots of details such as differences in color, line, direction, and form of the building, which It is very valuable in terms of identifying and analyzing the architecture and urban planning of a city. And it is believed that by examining this painting and historical documents in hand, it is possible to identify some of these buildings and re-read Metraqchi’s painting.
According to the analysis, Metraqchi has drawn a picture of the city of Tabriz with an east-west orientation. In drawing the buildings, the painter has used special colors and drawings and has separated the local, service, royal and urban buildings. In this painting, royal buildings are seen in pink and service buildings are seen in gray. Buildings with a platform are local and small, and buildings without a platform are urban buildings. In this map, the river (Mehran River) divides the city into two southern and northern fronts, and the bazaar is in the southern part of the map and has two north-south lines and an east-west line. Hajat Mosque (code 7), Jame Mosque (code 3), Ustad and Shagerd Mosque (code 6), several caravanserais in the long row of north-south and buildings such as Qeisaria Mansion (code 2) are in shorter order. Jahanshah Mosque (current Kaboud Mosque with code 1) and Ustad and Shagardan Mosque (code 6) are on the east-west row. The three colours brown, green and orange are the prominent colours of the Bazaar and analyses show that the destroyed market or old has the brown colour and the buildings with an orange body and green roof are the markets under construction.