عنوان مقاله [English]
During the Safavid epoch to the Pahlavi era, Khorāsgān was a Qariya, Qaṣaba, and City respectively. The Khorāsgān City was founded by joining several Qariya in 1964 and joining Isfahan in 2013. In the present study, while introducing the cultural landscape of Khorāsgān and understanding its boundaries in different periods, the structure of one of its forgotten neighborhoods called “Miyān” or “Vostā” was studied and its approximate range was determined. In addition, according to field surveys and the study of various documents, it is obvious that the measures taken by Bāqer Khān-e Khorāsgāni and the increase of water resources caused the wealth of the region to double and its influence can be traced in the development of Khorāsgan and in particular, some houses built with luxurious architecture in this neighborhood. Thus, contrary to what has been said so far regarding the attribution of the Khān complex to Bāqer Khān-e Khorāsgāni, it was determined that Bāqer Khān had no role in the construction of this luxurious architectural complex and the Khān complex was constructed by local Khāns in the early Qajar period. Due to the existence of the aforementioned houses and buildings attributed to Bāqer Khān (mosque and bathhouse), the Vostā neighborhood was considered the most important part and center of the Qariya and Qaṣaba during this period. The death of the fifth generation of Khāns and also the land reform in the second Pahlavi period (1941-1979) led to the decline of the political, social, and economic power of the Khorāsgān Khāns. Therefore, the development of the Vostā, unlike the Olyā and Soflā neighborhoods, was stopped and its central role faded away. Also, the construction of Abāzar Street and the relocation of the Jāmeʿ mosque (AKA. Friday mosque) from this neighborhood in 1979 led to the destruction of the neighborhood and its landmarks, so the name of the neighborhood was forgotten and removed from the urban divides of Khorāsgān.
Keywords: Cultural Landscape, Isfahan, Khorāsgān, Vostā (Miyān) Neighborhood, Khān Complex.
Khorāsgān that today considered a part of Isfahan city, has had many changes in administrative geography. The title of Qariya in all the written sources and inscriptions is used for Khorāsgān until the Safavid era and after it. The activities taken by Bāqer Khān-e Khorāsgānī in the Zand period, mainly transferring water from the Rārān Spring to the Khorāsgān brought significant development to the Qariya until it became one of the main villages of Isfahan. Khorāsgān divided into three major neighborhoods the central neighborhood of which was called Miyān or Vostā and today it is considered one of the forgotten places. In this part of Khorāsgān, there is a complex of historical houses that can be considered the most beautiful houses in Isfahan and Iran. A study of the cultural landscape of this region could help to determine the boundaries of the Vostā neighborhood in Khorāsgān. Also identifying the main zone of the Khān complex and surrounding houses based on the archaeological survey, historical texts and documents, and oral tradition considered in this article.
Discussion (The structure of the Vostā neighborhood and Khān Complex)
Khorāsgān Qaṣaba limits can be survived well in the aerial photo taken in 1964 which coincides with the establishment of the city of Khorāsgān. In this photo, the location of 29 points and the range of 11 destroyed buildings were determined, which helped in identifying the limited area of the Vostā neighborhood. These 40 monuments dating from 1702 to the end of the Qajar period consists of the three gates, four mosques, two Takyehs, one bath, one cemetery, two drinking fountains, as well as the Khān-e Khorāsgān complex, which now has 27 houses, took shaped the structure of the Vostā or Miyān neighborhood. Khān complex is a 2.2-hectare area and only 9 houses have been registered in the reports of the Cultural Heritage organization. In the current survey, in this complicated complex, 18 other valuable monuments were also identified, of which 2 houses were destroyed in 2019 and 1 house may be demolished soon. The foundation of the Khān complex can be attributed to Aqā Mohammad Jaʿfar, one of the Khorāsgān’s headman, kadḵodā, in the middle of the 19th century in terms of diversity, coherence, architecture, and decorations, this complex is composed one of the most valuable historical zones that its study can clear unknown aspects of the archaeology, history, and history of architecture. The houses in the Vostā neighborhood represent the long-term residence of the Khāns and headman of Khorāsgān, at least from the early Qajar period up to now, which reveals one of the unique aspects of the complex.
The cultural landscape of the Khorāsgān changed in different periods and especially in the Qajar era, Khorāsgān reached the highest position and was named the Qaṣaba (center) of Jay block. In this Qaṣaba due to the location of one of the three main neighborhoods called Miyān or Vostā, it was considered as a center of Khorāsgān which is also confirmed by the monuments and the administrative documents. The identification of 40 buildings, including the Khān complex with unique features, is another indication of the special characteristics of the Miyān neighborhood during the Zand and spatial Qajar eras. Aerial images taken in 1964 showed well the expansion of Qariya-s and neighborhoods during the last sixty years, in the meantime, many buildings have been destroyed in the Miyān neighborhood 10 of which were identified. By Siting, the existing, renovated, and destroyed buildings of the Miyān neighborhood try to shape a clear picture of this in the Qaṣaba of Khorāsgān. This study determined that only the 2 buildings of the masjed-e Now (New mosque) and the destroyed bathhouse, in the Miyān neighborhood, can be attributed to Bāqer Khān-e Khorasgani. Also, the date of the Khān complex and the houses around is more recent than the Bāqer Khān’s period and probably back to the beginning of the Qajar period. Resignation and premature death of Mirzā Fażl-Allāh, the seventh chieftain of Khorāsgān Khān’s family in 1339 AH and Iranian Land Reform by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi ended the political, economic, and social power of this family. Finally, the construction of Abāzar Street in 1921, the destruction of the Miyān monument like the Bāqer Khān bathhouse, and finally, the change of the location of Jāmeʿ mosque (AKA. Friday mosque) decreased the importance of the neighborhood and merged it into two other neighborhoods, i.e., Upper (Olyā) and Lower (Soflā). For these reasons, the Miyān neighborhood was gradually left out of the urban divides and currently, it remains only in the memory of a few elderly people.