عنوان مقاله [English]
The typology can also include micro issues on a small scale of architecture to metropolitan issues. According to the changes that have taken place in the last century, historical houses are severely subject to destruction, while they constitute the major part of the fabric of the historical cities of Iran. Investigations show that so far not many studies have been done on these houses, thinking about them due to matching the needs of Iranian people and the construction environment can be beneficial in reaching a suitable housing model. The current research is a qualitative approach and in terms of theoretical purpose. The research strategy has a historical method and the research method is descriptive-analytical in terms of the type of results. The main issue of this article is how the culture of the people of the region affects the formation of the types of houses in Sanandaj during the first Pahlavi period. Therefore, with a cultural-physiological look at the houses of Ahmadzadeh, Amir Asefi and Mesri, the most obvious characteristic affecting the formation of their species was extracted. The purpose of this research is to study and understand the relationship between the architecture of houses in Sanandaj and the culture of the Kurdistan region, to know the architectural types of Sanandaj houses in the first Pahlavi period from the cultural point of view of the Kurdistan region, and to analyze the characteristics of the existing types of houses in Sanandaj based on the reading (study and analysis) of the buildings. The results of this research show that the percentage of open and closed spaces in the historical houses of Sanandaj indicate the formation of the body of the houses, and also factors such as maintaining privacy, culture and customs are among the main indicators. And the culture of Ahmadzadeh, Amir Asefi and Mesri houses, which shows the preservation of social-physical identity and local culture in Sanandaj city.
Keywords: Typology, Physical-Cultural, Historical Houses, Sanandaj.
Today, the use of housing quantitatively, has the highest percentage of urban buildings, including traditional-historical contexts, and in terms of quality, the type and manner of housing architecture design, the lifestyle and quality of life of different social strata, a fundamental impact and Has a determinant. In the meantime, Sanandaj is considered as one of the historical cities of Iran that a number of valuable architectural houses have remained in its traditional context, so the purpose of this study is to study the pattern of these buildings to improve this valuable texture and its salvation is against the emergence of unconventional buildings.
The city of Sanandaj is considered as one of the historical cities of Iran, where a number of architecturally valuable houses have remained in its traditional context. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the typology of these buildings in order to improve the valuable texture and save it from the emergence of unconventional buildings.
Meanwhile, the main task of typology is to categorize and classify samples based on common criteria. This common criterion can sometimes include the function of the architectural space and sometimes the shape characteristics. Although the mere presence of commonalities in phenomena and especially in architectural designs does not indicate that they follow a certain pattern, but classifying samples based on types can also help to identify patterns (Mirsjadi and Farkish, 2015: 73).
Research Questions: The present study seeks to answer these two questions; 1- What was the effect of the culture of Kurdistan region on the houses of Sanandaj city (Ahmadzadeh, Amir Asefi and Mesri’s houses) in the first Pahlavi period? 2- What are the main and basic characteristics of the known types of houses in Sanandaj (Ahmadzadeh, Amir Asefi and Mesri’s houses)?
Research method: The present article is a qualitative approach, in terms of the paradigm of epistemology, it is placed in the group of interpretive paradigm. The type of reasoning is inductive and theoretical in terms of purpose. The research strategy has a historical method and the work method is descriptive-analytical in terms of the type of results. Field and library methods were used in collecting information and tools such as mapping, photography and mapping were used. The descriptive-analytical method helps to provide a correct interpretation for each problem related to the known work and to deduce the facts related to life from them; Therefore, the search for the cultural-physical phenomenon of the house in its complex temporal and spatial context is accompanied by a narrative and holistic explanatory orientation and has been done in three stages; First, collecting the sources, then searching and organizing the data, and in the last stage, evaluating, describing and analyzing the data, which was done qualitatively.
In Kurdistan province, 129 valuable houses from different periods have been left, of which 89 houses have been registered in Sanandaj by the Cultural Heritage Department of Kurdistan province. More than 20 houses belong to the Pahlavi period, 10 of which were built in the first Pahlavi period. Out of these, three houses of Ahmadzadeh, Amir Asefi and Mesri have been analyzed due to their special architectural features, availability of selection documents. In the table, the samples of selected houses in the city of Sanandaj are defined. In these definitions, the type of placement of the spaces around the courtyard and the number of courtyards, as well as physical characteristics such as the number of floors, height, area, and material of the facade and structure, have been examined and categorized. According to the investigations, Ahmadzadeh’s house has 4 floors, Amir Asefi’s house and Mesri’s house have 2 floors. And the basement can be seen in all samples. It should also be noted that the entry in this course is designed directly. The orientation of the houses is east-west, which has enough light throughout the day, and due to the cold and mountainous climate of the region, the heat of bright light is fully and optimally used.
In general, all three groups of open, covered and closed spaces can be observed in the design of the researched houses. Open space, closed space and covered space are respectively from the largest to the smallest.
The existence of valuable examples of the architectural works of the houses of different historical periods in Sanandaj and their exposure to destruction due to cultural and social changes and in general the loss of attractiveness for today’s life makes it necessary to study and research about the houses of Sanandaj. Investigations show that despite the role, diversity and special features of the cold and mountainous architecture of this region, no systematic and coherent studies have been done about them, especially the typology and the impact of the culture of the region on the formation of these houses. In the studied examples, the basement is seen in all of them. Entry in this course is designed directly. The orientation of the houses is east-west, which has enough light all day long, and due to the cold and mountainous climate, the heat of the bright light is fully and optimally used. The architecture of the researched houses in Sanandaj, in terms of the location of each space, is in three general parts, under the title of open space, covered space and closed space. In the study of the full and empty space of the studied houses, Amir Asefi’s house had the largest closed space with 65 percent compared to Mesri and Ahmadzadeh houses, followed by Amir Asefi house with 60 percent and Ahmadzadeh house with 55 percent. They had the highest percentage of closed space in their design type in the first Pahlavi period. Also, in terms of open space, Ahmedzadeh house with 42%, Mesri house with 38% and Amir Asefi house with 33% have the largest and smallest size of open space, respectively. Also, Ahmadzadeh house with 3 percent and Amir Asefi and Mesri houses with the same amount of 2 percent, in terms of covered space, have the highest and lowest amount, respectively, and these are an indication of the type of design and arrangement of physical space in There have been houses. Therefore, the percentage of open and closed space in the historical houses of Sanandaj city shows the formation of the body of the houses, as well as factors such as maintaining privacy, culture and customs, among the main and cultural indicators of the houses of Ahmadzadeh, Amir Asefi and Egyptian, which shows the preservation of socio-physical identity and native culture in the city of Sanandaj.