مطالعه ساختار، ویژگی های تکنیکی و زمینه های تاریخی ساخت بنای گنبدقابوس

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیات علمی

2 هیات علمی/ دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

3 دانشجو

چکیده

معماری ایران در طول حیات خود دستاوردهای بزرگ و شاه‌کارهای ارزش‌مند بسیاری داشته است؛ برپایی تالارهای ستوندار وسیع، ابداع و گسترش شیوه برپایی پوشش‌های گنبدی بر فضاهای‌ چهارگوش، توانایی فوق‌العاده در اجرای طاق‌های عظیم، بدون استفاده از داربست و ساخت بناها و مجموعه‌های فوق‌العاده از این جمله است. دستاوردها مزبور تا حدودی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته و به جهانیان معرفی شده است، با این‌حال با توجه به این حقیقت که معماران و استادکاران ایرانی در طول تاریخ مدارک نوشتاری و اسناد و نقشه‌ها و طرح‌های نادری از خود به‌جای گذاشته‌اند و مطالعات دقیق فنی بر روی بسیاری از آثار برجای مانده صورت نگرفته، لذا در ارتباط با جزییات طراحی، اجرا، تزیین و نیز زمینه‌های تاریخی و فرهنگی خلق آثار معماری، اطلاعات ناچیزی وجود دارد. یکی از شاخص‌ترین بناها که به‌طور شایسته مورد مطالعه قرار نگرفته، گنبدقابوس است که با وجود گذشت بیش از هزار سال و عوامل مخرب طبیعی و انسانی، با تعمیرات جزیی سربلند و استوار ایستاده است. ثبت جهانی این بنا[1]، مطالعه همه جانبه و دقیق‌تر آن‌را ضروری می‌سازد. در این پژوهش تلاش می‌شود، ضمن معرفی علمی بنای گنبدقابوس، زمینه‌های فرهنگی و تاریخی ساخت آن، منشاء احتمالی معماری آن، اصول و قوانین حاکم بر طراحی، تکنیک‌ها و تمهیدات معماری خاصی که ماندگاری طولانی مدت بنا را موجب شده، مورد مطالعه و بررسی قرار گیرد.



[1]. بنای گنبدقابوس در سال 1310 و به‌شماره 86 به ثبت ملی رسیده و در سال 2012 و جلسه سی‌وششم سازمان یونسکو با شماره 1398 ثبت جهانی شده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Gunbad-e Qabus: Study of Structure, Technical Features and Historical Backgrounds of Construction

چکیده [English]

In its lifetime, Iranian architecture has had the great masterpieces of the great achievements. One of the most prominent buildings that have not been properly studied, is Gunbad-I-Qabus which despite of more than a thousand years and  devastating  factors, has stood proud and strong with minor repairs. This study is an attempt to introduce the building of Gunbad-I-Qabus scientifically, and represent the culture-historical contexts, the potential source of architectural and principles and design rules dominating architectural specific techniques and measures leading to its long-term survival. Here, we rely on the field and library studies results while introducing Gunbad-e Qabus building scientifically, looking at technical and structural features of its long-term sustainability and culture-historical contexts of the creation of this masterpiece. Gunbad-e Qabus was built on top of a hill on the north side of the Gunbad-e Qabus city, 3 km from the remains of the ancient city of Gorgan. It is made of three distinct parts with finned cylindrical plan consisting of foundation, stem, and dome. The foundation of building is 17/08 m in diameter with a depth of about 9/80 meters and a volume of about 2,200 cubic meters was made in the cylindrical form. Compared to other monuments of Iran, it seems to be one of the greatest foundations implemented. This study shows that despite of the very limited use of ornaments, the splendor and beauty of this special building is remarkable which can be compared to the Cyrus the Great’s tomb in Pasargadae. Designers and architects of these two figures have been inspired by statue architecture in the design in which the building is designed and constructed so that it has beautiful and magnificent view of the different directions; thus, the interior is usually not considered as exterior. Moreover, sustainability is an important part on which based using the extraordinary measures. Compared to other buildings, building the greatest foundation, design according to the strict rules of geometry, golden proportions, rhythmic strain in the walls harnessing the driving force the finned design along with ornamental aspects leading to the better stability, high conical dome as an umbrella encircling the hull and resistant materials are among these measures. Gunbad-I-Qabus has made for the memorial of the wise and the ruler of Ziyari Dynasty. It is classified as one of the tomb-towers of early centuries of northern Iran, but compared to them and later samples, it has certain dignity. Gunbad-e Qabus building enjoys a powerful plan which cannot be seen at any precedent samples. The samples which have been built immediately after that in northern region of Iran do not appear to be similar to Gunbad-I-Qabus while they have richer decorations. It probably is rooted in the traditions of Sassanid architecture of Persia.
This study showed that the Gunbad-I-Qabus architects had achieved great progress in the design, choice of materials and construction of large projects, although the absence or rarity of written records and documents prevent us from understanding the architecture and the architectural achievements of this historical period. However, this building was constructed in the golden age of Islamic civilization and the emergence of scholars, writers, architects, artists and craftsmen and this level of sophistication is justified.
The most important thing about building of Gunbad-I-Qabus, is its relationship with socio-political upheavals; the Construction coincided with the great deep “Iranian identity revival” shaping the national and local government, reviving the Persian language and Iranian traditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gunbad-I-Qabus
  • Funerary Architecture
  • Islamic Architecture