خواجه عسکر: گورستانی از هزاره ی چهارم پیش از میلاد در جنوب شرق ایران از داده های مشهود تا بوده های مفقود

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناسی ارشد باستان شناسی دانشگاه تهران

3 سازمان میراث فرهنگی کشور

4 دانشگاه لیون 2

چکیده

مناطق جنوب‌شرق ایران در نیم قرن اخیر کانون پژوهش‌ها و دستاوردهای مهم باستان‌شناختی در سطح ملی و بین‌المللی بوده‌اند. کشف بقایای متعلق به مراکز شهری عصر مفرغ به‌ویژه شهرسوخته یا تمدن حوزه هیرمند و هامون در استان سیستان و بلوچستان، شهداد و جیرفت یا تمدن حوزه هلیل‌رود در استان کرمان همه مهر تاییدی است بر اهمیت باستان‌شناختی، تاریخی و فرهنگی این مناطق. با این‌همه دانش ما در رابطه با فرهنگ‌های پیش از عصر مفرغ این منطقه- به ویژه هزاره‌ی چهارم پ.م.- هم‌چنان اندک و به قوت خود باقی است. طی کاوش نجات بخشی گورستان خواجه‌عسکر بم در سال 1389، اطلاعات بسیار ارزنده‌ای از هزاره‌ی چهارم پ.م منطقه به‌دست آمد. پروژه‌ی خواجه‌عسکر، کاوش در گورستانی در روستای خواجه‌عسکر بم است که پیش از شروع کاوش بیش از 15 گور آن به‌وسیله بیل مکانیکی تخریب شده و تنها اشیای تدفینی آن که شامل 15 شی سالم سفالی و گلی می‌شد، به‌دست آمده بود. در نتیجه‌ی کاوش باستان‌شناسی در این گورستان، تعداد 9 گور شناسایی و 53 شیء تدفینی به‌دست آمد. اشیاء تدفینی این گورستان شامل: ظروف سفالی، سنگی، گلی و مهره‌های گلی و سنگی، یک سر پیکان فلزی و هم‌چنین صدف می‌شوند. با توجه به گاهنگاری مقایسه‌ای بین داده‌های سفالی به‌دست آمده از این گورستان با محوطه‌های استقراری جنوب‌شرق ایران و پاکستان مانند: تل ابلیس، محطوط آباد، شاهی‌تمب و مهرگاره می‌توان گفت که گورستان خواجه‌عسکر بم مربوط به فرهنگ علی‌آباد (دوره ابلیس IV) بوده است و قدمتش به هزاره‌ی چهارم پ.م. باز می‌گردد. نوشتار حاضر برآن‌ست تصویری شفاف از گورستان خواجه‌عسکر ارایه و با توجه به اشیاء تدفینی به‌دست آمده، تاریخ‌نسبی برای گورستان پیشنهاد دهد. هم‌چنین سعی‌بر آن شده تا گورستان مذکور را در ارتباط با فرهنگ‌های هزاره‌چهارم پ.م. جنوب‌شرق ایران مورد تحلیل قرار دهد..

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Khaje Askar: A 4th Millennium B.C Cemetery in Southeastern Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hekmatollah M. Salehi 1
  • Mojgan Shafie 2
  • Bahman Firouzmandi 1
  • Nader A.Soleimani 3
  • Nasir Eskandari 4
چکیده [English]

Due to exciting discovery of major Bronze Age urban centers in southeastern Iran, such as Shahre Sukhte,  Shahdad and Konar Sandal (Jiroft) in Kerman province, most scholarly attention has been given to the 3rd millennium BC. As a result, the cultures preceding the Bronze Age in particular the 4th millennium BC have been often neglected. In early 2011, the Iranian Center of Heritage, Handicraft and Tourism Organization (ICHHTO) of Kerman Province conducted a rescue excavation at Khaje Askar cemetery near the city of Bam, in which several graves and complete funerary vessels were discovered (about 15 graves had been bulldozed previously). Khaje askar cemetery is located on the east bank of Chelleh Khane River in the Bam plain. From the construction activities 14 complete potteries and some bone fragments were found which proved the existence of a cemetery so the construction activities were postponed and a rescue excavation was conducted by a team of archaeologists of ICHITO under the supervision of Nader Alidadi Soleimani. As a result of the excavations 9 graves and 53 funerary goods were uncovered; the burial goods included ceramics, stone and clay beads, stone vessels, shells and a unique metal arrowhead. In addition to the damages of construction activities, existence of a channel (70 cm wide and 1 m deep) through the eastern part of the hill had caused so many damages to the cemetery especially grave 105 which was barely recognizable.
In khaje askar cemetery 7 trenches named A-G were opened which covered 460 square meters of the hill. 9 graves were uncovered from the trenches of eastern part of the hill. They were labelled from 101 to 109. The aim of the rescue excavations at Khaje Askar was to identify the intact graves and to liberate the parts of natural hill on which the cemetery was located .according to the landlords during the construction activities 15 graves had been bulldozed in the west side of the natural hill. All the graves found through excavations were in the eastern part of the hill. The interesting point is that no graves were discovered in the southern part of the site.
According to the comparative chronology done based on the ceramics of the excavated settlement sites of southeastern Iran and Pakistan such as Tall e Iblis, Mahtootabad, Mehrgareh and Shahi tumb, Khaje Askar cemetery belongs to the Aliabad culture( Iblis IV) and goes back to 4th millennium BC.
The comparative analysis of the ceramic assemblage and other items as well of khaje Askar cemetery, suggest the date of 4th millennium BC (Aliabad culture) and shows that the cemetery was a single period site.
There are many third millennium excavated cemeteries in southeastern Iran such as Shahr-e Sukhte (tosi, Sajjadi), Shahdad (Hakemi 1977),Mahtoot abad (Majidzade 2008), Kenaroo Esfandaghe ( Rahbar 1376), khoorab (Stein 1937), Rameshk ( Choobak 1383), which prove that using of cemeteries was frequent in this period and give us some information about the burial patterns. But not until the excavations of Khaje Askar no cemetery belonging to 4th millennium had been found in southeastern Iran. So we suggest that the culture of using cemeteries dates back to the 4th millennium BC in southeast of Iran.
In this article, we state the results of excavations at Khaje Askar cemetery and describe the burials and funerary goods and according to a comparative analysis based on the ceramics of other excavated settlement sites of southeastern Iran and Pakistan such as Tal- e Iblis, Mahtot abad, Meh rgarh and Shahi Tump, we argue that Khaje Askar cemetery belongs to the Aliabad culture (Iblis IV) and dates to the 4th millennium BC.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Southeastern Iran
  • Khaje Askar Cemetery
  • Burial Patterns
  • Aliabad Culture (Iblis IV)
چوبک، حمیده، 1383، تسلسل فرهنگی جازموریان-شهر قدیم جیرفت در دوره اسلامی، پایان نامه دکتری، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس(منتشر نشده).

رهبر، مهدی 1370، کنارو در پیوند با تمدن­های جنوب شرقی ایران، مجله میراث فرهنگی، انتشارات میراث فرهنگی، سال دوم، شماره 3 و 4، ص 60-75.

علیدادی سلیمانی، نادر، 1390، گزارش کاوش نجات بخشی گورستان خواجه عسکر بم، آرشیو پژوهشکده باستان شناسی(منتشر نشده).

Beale, T.W. and Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. (ed.) 1986. Excavations at Tepe Yahya, Iran 1967-1975. The Early Periods, American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin, Vol. 38, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge.

Caldwel, J.R, 1967, Investigations at Tal-i Iblis. Springfield: Illinois State Museum Society, Preliminary Reports 9.

Hakemi. A, 1977, Shahdad: Archaeological Excavations of a Bronze Age Center in Iran. Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Centro scavi e richerche archeologiche, Reports and Memoirs 27. Rome: Oxford & IBH.

Madjidzade, Y., 2008, Excavations at Konar Sandal in the region of the Jiroft in Halil Basin: First preliminary report (2002-2008), IRAN, Vol. 46, PP. 69-103.

Mutin. Benjamin, 2013, Ceramic traditions and interactions on the south-eastern Iranian Plateau during the fourth millennium BC, In C. Petrie (ed) Ancient Iran and Its Neighbours: Local Developments and Long-range Interactions in the 4th Millennium BC. The British Institute of Persian Studies, Archaeological Monographs Series III, pp 253-276.

Piperno, M., and M. Tosi, 1975. “The Graveyard of Shahr-i Sokhta, Iran.” Archaeology 28: 186-197.

Prickett, M.E., 1986, Settlement during Early Periods of Tepe Yahya. In Beale, T.W. and Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. (eds) 1986. Excavations at Tepe Yahya, Iran 1967-1975. The Early Periods, American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin, Vol. 38, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge, pp 215-246.

Sajjadi .M.S, F. Foruzanfar, R. Shirazi, S. Baghestani, 2003, Excavations at Shahre-i Sokhta. First Preleminary Report on the Excavations of  the Graveyard 1997-2000, Iran, Vol.41, pp 21-97.

Sajjadi, S.M.S., 1987. Prehistoric Settlements in the Bardsir Plain, South-Eastern Iran, East and West 37: 11-129.

Salvatori, S., and M. Vidale. 1982. “A Brief Surface Survey of the Protohistoric Site of Shahdad (Kerman, Iran): Preliminary Report.” Rivista di Archeologia 6: 5-10.

Sarraf M.R., 1981, Die Keramik von Tell-i Iblis und ihre zeiltiche und räumliche Beziehung zu den anderen iranischen und mesopotamischen Kulturen. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, vol. 7.

Stien, Sir.M.A., 1937. Archaeological Reconnaissances in North-Western India and South-Eastern Iran. London: Macmillan.

Thornthon, CP., 2009. The emergence of complex metallurgy on the Iranian Plateau: Escaping the Levantine Paradigm: Journal of World Prehistory22(3): 301-329

 

Vidale, M and F. Desset, 2013, Mahtoutabad (KSS, Jiroft). Preliminary Evidence of Occupation of a Halil Rud Site in the early 4th Millennium BC, In C. Petrie (ed) Ancient Iran and Its Neighbours: Local Developments and Long-range Interactions in the 4th Millennium BC. The British Institute of Persian Studies, Archaeological Monographs Series III, pp 233-252.