عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The chronology of Northwestern Iran is mainly based on the results of some sites located around Lake Uremia; while the northwestern Iran has various geographical landscapes, including pastures, mountains, and less-watered plains. The climate and vegetation had great impact on the life of people in this area. These impacts are more visible on the societies of the Late Bronze age and Iron Age of this small oasis.
Qalla Khosrow is one of these sites located some 30 kilometers North-West of the Ardabil city. The fortress stands on a rocky hill, some 1395 meters above the sea level, on the left bank of the Ghara-su River; the river has restricted the site in north, northwest and east directions as flowing close to fortress structures with high steep. In addition to the vast natural obstacles, of the main advantages of the Qalla Khosrow is its location on the Ardabil- Meshgin Shahr ancient road.
The extent of Qalla Khosrow including settlement and cemetery overall is more than 300 hectares in area while the fortress itself is about 20 hectares. According to the Archaeological evidences, the cultural features of the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age I in east of northwestern Iran have considerable differences with Lake Uremia basin. This diversity in settlement patterns and common cultures of given zones is depend on the dominant Geographical conditions of each zone. However, the Late Bronze Age of the Lake Uremia Basin is known as Uremia and Khabur Ware, but the most striking feature of the Settlement Patterns in the Late Bronze Age in eastern areas of the northwest of Iran -the Ardabil Plain- is living within castles which have been made with stone alignment without mortar on top of the hill and from one or two directions have preserved by natural features. Regarding to their function, notability and some other factors the castles of this period can be classified to various types. Of the most striking features of these settlements is a large castle in center as a central fortress surrounding by several smaller peripheral fortresses. In this model, the fortress such as Qalla Khosrow has been as central and the fortresses such as Zino, Shindir shami, Kichik Yurdi, Sheytan Dashi, Gol Nesa and Yeri castle peripheral fortresses having pattern. These citadels are not big and their expansion are 1 to 2 hectare in area. It seems that in Late Bronze Age of the region a network of fortified citadel around the central fortresses like Qalla Khosrow is visible. Of the physical characters of the central fortress to contain a cemetery with Megalithic graves. The peripheral fortresses are small in size and area and there are some graveyards Cist tombs around them. It seems that these castles had military function and have built to protect the boundary and pasture of central fortresses and as a military station guarding the Ardabil plain from the north.