عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
As a part of the Kouhrang Dam construction project and its third tunnel in Birgan, Kouhrang, (Chaharmahal O Bakhtiari) a salvage archaeological survey was carried out documenting the potential of archaeological remains within its reservoir and the tunnel. Most of the recorded are nomadic camps. Aiming to rescue, a proposal was submitted for excavations at the most important of the identified sites; as in 2008 the excavations were carried out. One of the excavated sites, i.e. Shahriyari 2, is situated 1 km west of the Shahriyari village in Birgan region, Kouhrang County, Chaharmahal o Bakhtiari Province, is the subject of the present paper.
Excavations exposed some irregular plans of architectural remains. Understand this features was firstly difficult, but the parallel ethnological studies on the villages and the current seasonal camps lying within the studying area was helpful to shed light on the darkness of the ambiguous material.
Finally, it has revealed that during the Achamenid period the region was prepare land for nomadic people as being used currently. Besides presenting a brief report on the excavation, the present paper trying to describe the results of comparative study of the ceramics, which allowed us to propose the chronology of material. Having analysis of the recovered potteries it become clear that the Shahriyari 2 chronologically attributed to the Achamenid period, and the material could be compare to most contemporaneous sites particularly Persepolis, Chogha Mish and Susa. On the other hand, ethnoarchaeology studies on the architecture of modern nomadic camps, proved that this architectural type with some changes, is compatible with the results obtained at the excavated Achamenid settlements had continued to nowadays.
The site of Shahriyari 2 located at the height of 200m on the southern slope of the natural mound of Maleh or Mazeh (in local name meaning mound and plain, respectively). The mound itself is almost 300m high, with an elevation 2291meters above sea level located at zone 39S N: 3570282, E: 0429937 UTM. Kouhrang County, where the site is located, marks the most mountainous quarter of the province, and lies at its northern end of the province. Here, is divided into two Central and Bazoft Districts, separated by Zard-kuh Mountains. Kouhrang is restricted by Isfahan Province to the north, Luristan Province to the northwest, Khuzestan Province to the west, the Central District of Ardal County to the south, and Shahr-e Kurd and Farsan Counties to the east. The landscape is characterized by the intense mountains.
Pottery comparisons suggest Shahriyari 2 as an Achamenid settlement. Also, the architectural remains discovered at this nomadic site share several similarities with the modern settlements of the region in type of building, plan and structure.
Comparison between the pottery assemblage from Shahriyari 2 and the material from lowland sites in Fars and Khuzestan has proved the strong interactions between Kouhrang nomads and these regions. However, further archaeological fieldwork is needed to determine whether these ancient pastoralists wintered only in Fars or Khuzestan, or moved to both regions to spend the cold season; similar interactions have continued nowadays, with Khuzestan particularly.
Comparative analysis of the potteries from Shahriyari 2 suggests a date in Achamenid period. So, Shahriyari 2 falls in the same chronological horizon with Persepolis, Chogha Mish (Levels 4-5) and Susa (Ville Royale II).