عنوان مقاله [English]
The formation of the modern city of Khorram-Abad, as a center of Luristan province in the western Iran, dates back to the middle Islamic period (probably 5-7 A.H). The formation and development process of the city has affected by the appropriate environmental and ecological conditions. Khorram-Abad has suitable conditions for human population from the prehistoric period through modern time. The major factors shaping the settlement and development of the region are suitable transport location as well as natural and geographical factors such as water resources, especially rivers crossing the city such as Karganeh and Khorram-Abad rivers. Before the modern formation of the Khorram Abad was a town, named Shapur-Khast backed to Sassanid the Early Islamic periods. It seems that Shapur-khast has been abandoned at the 7 or 8 A.H and Khorram-Abad flourished as the central town of the region. What we certainly know is that the core of the modern city of Khorram-Abad has been founded at the western side of Falak-ol-Aflak castle.
The earliest maps of the historic plan of the town, about the 1270 A.H, are produced by Russian surveyors. The present article is dealing with this map and aerial photos at the 1956 and 1969, the initial scope of the study and development of Khorram-Abad from the Safavid to the Pahlavi periods using data from GIS software and analysis. The most important studies in this area have been carried out by local researchers. Of course some researchers have done to Khorram-Abad valley field study by foreigners such as Sir Hennery Rawlinson. As there are not much researches on the Islamic city of Khorram-Abad and urban development from inception to nowadays we will try to use archaeological evidence, images with texture maps and city information from GIS aiming to provide suitable information about the context of the current city of Khorram-Abad. Based on archaeological evidence, the center of modern city of Khorram-Abad and the initial core of the city in the Safavid period were determined. Valuable monuments and inscriptions of the Safavid period has been remained in Khorram-Abad which on based the initial core of the city in the Safavid period was determined. The city boundaries in the Qajar and Pahlavi era have been identified according to 1270 A.H map and aerial photographs of 1956 and 1969. It was the culmination of a period of prosperity and urban development and what factors have led to physical development in various aspects of the other objectives of this research. The present study is based on written sources and field work in the context of the old town and the exploration of the related maps, urban development has taken place. Accordingly, the summit of the development of Khorram-Abad has been the Safavid and Pahlavi periods lying at the middle of north to south transportation routes and its selection as the center of Luristan province at the Pahlavi period as well, are the most important factors in the development of the city; particularly in north and south directions. The existence of the Zagros mountain in the east and west sides of the city as a limiting factor and also the flat land and fertile southern city is leading to physical development at the north and south directions. The result of this research shows that the reason of existence of Khorram-Abad and its foremost function and its extension are the geographic and climatic conditions and central location and its relationship to the city is because this region is a crossroads from West to East and North to South