عنوان مقاله [English]
Persia with its special geographical position has been continually subjected by invasions, battles and campaigns. The study of castles and defense fortifications of Iran in any period or place gives valuable information about the fortification system. The study of architectural remains in Shahdad as castle-villages or just castle has provided an important context for archaeological research. During systematic reviewing archaeological survey of Shahdad zone in 2011, 19 castles and defense fortifications were identified in the Lut desert and none of them has been studied yet. Based on the number and diversity of these structures, the discussion about these structures seems to be essential. Accordingly, the present study is trying to evaluate the role of these castles in military, defense affairs and regional security. The result of this study shows that these structures have also played a decisive role in the political developments of the region and had new functions and numerous species which could put them besides other important building.
So, the formation of the core of Shahdad town has been Kohneh castle of Shahdad. Also, due to the insecurity Lut desert margins, the status of strategic Shahdad town and its location on the Kerman ـ Khorassan road, significant potential for castles and defenses can be highly considered for the region. Later on, sometimes these castles have been repaired and reused. Due to excessive damages, it has been rebuilt and newly retitled. However, the building history of these castles is unknown as they have been used for several periods; sometimes (for example, Choqoki castle and Kohneh castle of shahdad) or was built a new castle beside the older castle, so that precise dating of castles is difficult. Currently, some castles are safe and some are ruin and in some areas the only sign of life from the past is ruin.
By the Qajar period the Kerman and Shahdad areas were much more noted as from the construction or repair of older castles of Shahdad area is clearly evident. In Islamic castles of Shahdad the advances, in terms of the war, both for invaders and defenders have occurred which the bigger circular towers are built with less space and the walls are made more stronger. These castles have built with all necessary predictions to stop or slow down the invaders speed outside the castle walls and inside. The style of castle building has strong relationship with the security situation at the establishment time. Generally, the castles of Shahdad have been reminiscent chaos and marauding in Lut plain. The other results showed that in Shahdad and its surrounding rural areas residential complex are surrounded by the wall gradually developed and in the systematic structure form of a town or village, their condition has stabilized. In such cases, from city or early village has remain there are no traces or their ruins has remained in the center or near the present city. For example, in addition to the Kohneh castle of Shahdad, the Keshit castle located in Golbaf and Dehsaif castle can be mentioned. Other castles of Shahdad in terms of design and function are comparable with some castles within and outside of Kerman and central areas of Iran. The appleid method in this study achieving above objectives is archaeological systematic review and the analysis of data; finally, the results of performed publications about defensive and strongholds fortifications have been notified.