عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Mortuary practices are the main source of study on the ancient cults and religions. Burials, as a part of material and intangible heritage of a society, have their own characteristics in different regions. Since ancient inhumation traditions originate from the beliefs of the past societies, their study could be useful for reconstruction of cultural evolutionary process of them. Equally, investigation on them is the best way to determine the religious and cultural interactions among neighboring civilizations. In southern Makran, new archaeological surveys indicate that special stone burials, called cairn burials, are abundant during the Parthian era, very similar to those already identified in Kerman, Hormuzgan, Fars, northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr region), Pakistani Makran and southern shores of Oman Sea. In the Baluchistan region, these graves are called Dambi which refer to inhumation of old alive persons. In fact, an abundant samples of them were discovered among which, the largest and most significant site is “Damba-Koh” located in Bahu Kalat plain. Their form are characterized by semi-deep pits covered by a hump of stone pebbles. The present paper tries to study and classify these graves, to detect their traces in anterior periods as well as to evaluate their chronology through typological and comparative analysis of pottery, found on the newly identified cairn sites. The forms of the cairns are divided into three general groups including square, circular and oval shapes. Structurally, they have been constructed by two various methods:
1- Simple stony irregular graves
2- Regular graves with walls and doors
All of the graves have built with stones available around the sites. Only a few samples have remained intact and their roofs have been mostly collapsed during the time. In the case of chamber shaped cairns, they have been constructed without using any mortar. Some of them have entrance doors, between 50-70 cm wide and 50-70 cm high.
The potsherds discovered from these cairns are generally divided into 3 groups: the first group is usually monochrome or occasionally biochrome painted ware. Regarding their manufacturing techniques, they have a middle to fine paste and the surface of the vessels are covered by red to buff slips. Geometric (zigzag and ladder lined) motives have been used for decoration of the pottery. The second pottery type, which called Londo ware, is a kind of painted pottery on which animal motives (like horse and ibex motives) are abundant as well as geometric motives. The third category of pottery is fine orange ware with very smooth surface including cups and long chalices that some scholars consider an Indian origin for them. By providing new archeological evidence including classification of burial structures and pottery typology, the present study conclude that, at the moment, Parthian dating, already proposed for this type of graves, is also confirmed by our findings. But an earlier chronology could be attested by excavating some cairn burials in the region.