عنوان مقاله [English]
During the first to eighth centuries, Islamic city of Jiroft has been one of the strategic, important and great areas in cultural field of Halilrood and Jazmoriyan. Islamic city of Jiroft is located in Kerman province at south-east of Iran and during the Islamic period, it was one of the five county of Kerman province According to the political and geographical division. The extent of dispersion of cultural materials and ruins in this city is representative of its prosperity and importance in Kerman province and its vastness equals to famous cities of that time like Ray, Nishapur, Siraf, Istakhr and Isfahan. The main surface pottery findings at this city are: the pieces of wares with engraved patterns under glaze, Sgraffito, splashed glaze, slip-painted polychrome and monochrome wares, Faience with blue and turquoise and violet glaze, monochrome glaze, moulded design, lustre wares, and wares with Chinese inscriptions. Also many pieces of bricks, glasses, metal works, Beads made of precious stones and stuccos are scattered throughout the city. Also, architecture remains and plazas are recognizable throughout the city based on the surface effects. In excavations at this city by Hamideh Choobak in decades ago a great mosque, markets, one of the Bath houses and industrial workshops has discovered. The purpose of this research is to explain the quality of formation, development, abandonment and destruction of Islamic city of Jiroft during the first to eighth centuries. The main question is what environmental variables have affected formation, development and destruction of ancient city of Jiroft in the first to eighth centuries? Accordingly, the ecological theory proposed by Kenet Watt is considered and role of five variables of material, energy, diversity, space and time in three phases of formation, development and destruction has been studied. The following hypotheses have been made in order to clarify the direction of research: material and space have had the greatest impact on formation and development of Islamic city of Jiroft. Also, space was the main reason for abandonment and destruction of this city. The hypotheses of this study referring to findings of archeological surveys and historical approaches in study of written sources have been reviewed. Then argumentation is done based on the ecological theory proposed by Kenet Watt and role of five variables of material, energy, diversity, space and time in formation, development and destruction has been studied. According to archaeological findings Jiroft city was a moderate city in Kerman province from the beginning of Islam until the fourth century and its expansion began in the fourth century. Because the most cultural materials of this city are belong to fourth to eighth centuries. It seems that the most important reason for development of Jiroft was the change of communication path between Persian Gulf coast and northern part of country. Because Sirjan was the capital of Kerman province until the fourth century; but, from 4th century, Bardsir (current Kerman city) became the capital. Also, until this time, Kish and Siraf islands were the most important harbors of Persian gulf and the main commercial route continued to Sirjan and to northern part while the fourth century, by change of center of Kerman state from Sirjan to Bardsir and the importance of Hormuz harbor instead of, Kish and Siraf the communication route of Hormuz-Jiroft-Bardsir to northern parts were more developed and Jiroft became the store of imported goods and commercial medium. At the same time, the Qomadin sector was built at the northeastern margin of Jiroft city; As pointed out in the Marco Polo. The Indian, Chinese, Roman, Greek, Ethiopian, Zanzibar merchants lived in Qomadin and they store their goods at this sector. Then the Seljuk rulers of kerman focused on Jiroft and it was chosen as their winter capital. There were also resources and mines which provided raw materials of exported goods and made it more developed. Roads of Jiroft have lost their security during the battles of the Fars rulers, Shabankareh and Ghoz and Jiroft lost its importance at this time. But it recovered its prosperity in the Qarakhataee period. After this, Tamerlane attacked the south region of Kerman during the 8th century and he destroyed seven castles in this regions. After that by decrease of importance of Jiroft–Hormuz route this city slowly became abandoned.