عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The interior design of a dome is one of the most important decorations in Iranian architecture. The study of the common technique in Iran used for the decoration of internal parts of the domes indicates that for such decoration, brick, tile, and plaster are used in two plain and mixed forms. Although watercolor technique on plaster has not been used in any building, but the common decorating technique used for the internal part of the domes in Yazd uses gypsum plaster, painting of motifs, and construction of frieze by watercolor painting in azure color. These motifs include geometric shapes and arabesques with floral patterns. They also contain Quranic friezes and some cases friezes with hadiths and prophet’s traditions.
Such decorations are not exist in the building of that time in center, south, and east of Iran. On the other hand, the innovations and developments of architectural decorations in Yazd are based on the climatic and cultural conditions as well as the religious beliefs and available natural resources. All of these factors lead to create the special technique for artistic and architectural products. This technique is calls Yazd Style which can be observed in the central part of Iran.
The existing documents indicate that this style of the domes in Yazd was common since 5th century AH, during the rules of Kakuyids dynasty, and it was expanded in the era of Atabakan. It reached its peak aesthetically in 8th century AH. when Al-e Mozafar dynasty took office. This style survived even during Mongol Empire when Yazd was in adverse conditions except during the short-time rule of Mirchaghmagh and Haj Ghanbar Jahanshahi.
The characteristics of Yazd decoration style can be summarized as follows:
1- The internal parts of domes in Yazd buildings built from 5th to 8th century AH are covered by gypsum plaster.
2- The plaster is designed with rosette paintings which is called peacock feather rosette; it was a plain design originally, but it expanded in the next eras.
3- The tholobate of buildings of this period is decorated by friezes of Quran verses written in monochrome Kufic calligraphy. The tholobate is painted in azure color.
4- Azure is a color used for the decorations and friezes of different parts of buildings including dome, corners, and body decorations. This is the dominant color in decorations.
5- In Yazd, painting on plaster has never been replaced by tiling despite the elegant works of the architects of Yazd, who created domes with tiling such as the dome of the Grand Mosque of Yazd (Masjed Jame’ Yazd) in 777 AH.
6- This style features geometric and arabesque shapes as well as Kufic calligraphic forms and in some cases Naskh calligraphic forms.
7- Although the dominant color is azure, other color shades including green, ocher, yellow, etc. have used slightly in motifs and especially in the rosettes of the ceilings.
In the Early 8th century AH, the attitudes were changed both in religious and aesthetic terms; in decoration of Sultanieh dome which was required to have high quality changed rapidly, this method was welcome and implied. The use of this style and such decorations in Sultanieh dome is glamorous and shows the importance and status of this building in Ilkhanid era. Thanks to the skilled artisans of this field, this decoration style was expanded and used in the buildings of other regions of Iran during the rule of Timurid dynasty as well.